SPRE elements have typical signals. For instance, “Problem” signals include
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SPRE elements have typical signals. For instance, “Problem” signals include PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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SPRE elements have typical signals. For instance, “Problem” signals include although, however, problem, difficult, only Moves also have typical signals. In abstracts, “Approach” signals include first, next, then, by __ ing , method, [Passive]

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SPRE elements have typical signals. For instance, “Problem” signals include

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Spre elements have typical signals for instance problem signals include

SPRE elements have typical signals. For instance, “Problem” signals include

although, however, problem, difficult, only

Moves also have typical signals. In abstracts, “Approach” signals include

first, next, then, by __ing, method, [Passive]

Be careful – there is no one-to-one association between signalling words and moves or SPRE elements.

Lexical signals


Signalling through repetition

Signalling through repetition

Another type of signalling is repetition.

“Repetition” includes

Exact repetition (e.g., method, method)

Repetition of the word root (e.g. method, methodical)

Rewording (e.g., method, approach)

Pronoun reference (e.g., method, this)

In general, what does repetition signal?


Spre elements have typical signals for instance problem signals include

Look at the abstract on leaf venation.

Which phrases are “repeated” at least twice?

Repeated phrases


Spre elements have typical signals for instance problem signals include

Most Content-Based Image Retrieval systems use image features

such as textures, colors, and shapes. However, in the case of a leaf

image, it is not appropriate to rely on color or texture features only as

such features are very similar in most leaves. In this paper, we

propose a new and effective leaf image retrieval scheme. In this

scheme, we first analyze leaf venation which we use for leaf

categorization. We then extract and utilize leaf shape features to find

similar leaves from the already categorized group in a leaf database.

The venation of a leaf corresponds to the blood vessels in organisms.

Leaf venations are represented using points selected by a curvature

scale scope corner detection method on the venation image. The

selected points are then categorized by calculating the density of

feature points using a non-parametric estimation density. We show

this technique's effectiveness by performing several experiments on

a prototype system.

Repeated phrases


Spre elements have typical signals for instance problem signals include

Most Content-Based Image Retrieval systems use imagefeatures

such as textures, colors, and shapes. However, in the case of a leaf

image, it is not appropriate to rely on color or texture features only as

such features are very similar in most leaves. In this paper, we

propose a new and effective leafimage retrieval scheme. In this

scheme, we first analyze leafvenation which we use for leaf

categorization. We then extract and utilize leaf shape features to find

similar leaves from the already categorized group in a leaf database.

The venation of a leaf corresponds to the blood vessels in organisms.

Leafvenations are represented using points selected by a curvature

scale scope corner detection method on the venationimage. The

selected points are then categorized by calculating the density of

featurepoints using a non-parametric estimation density. We show

this technique's effectiveness by performing several experiments on

a prototype system.

Repeated phrases


Key words can be used in titles

Key words can be used in titles

The key words in the abstract are

leaf8

image5

feature(s)5

we5

venation(s)4

points3

The title uses four of these key words:

Utilizing venation features for efficient leaf image retrieval


Spre elements have typical signals for instance problem signals include

Look at the abstract about software innovation.

Which phrases occur three or more times?

Can you think of a good title using some of those phrases?

Exercise 1: Repeated phrases


Spre elements have typical signals for instance problem signals include

Exercise 1: Repeated phrases

To ensure smooth and successful transition of softwareinnovations

to enterprise systems, it is critical to maintain properlevels of

knowledge about the system configuration, the operational

environment, and the technology in both existing andnew systems.

We present a three-tier knowledge managementscheme through a

systematic planning of actions spanning thetransition processes in

levels from conceptual exploration toprototypedevelopment,

experimentation, and product evaluation.The three-tier scheme is

an integrated effort for bridging thedevelopment and operation

communities, maintaining stability tothe operational performance,

and adapting swiftly to softwaretechnology innovations. The scheme

combines experiences ofacademic researches and industrial

practitioners to providenecessary technical expertise and

qualifications for knowledgemanagement in software engineering

support (SES) processes.


Spre elements have typical signals for instance problem signals include

A three-tier knowledge management scheme for software engineering support and innovation

To ensure smooth and successful transition of softwareinnovations

to enterprise systems, it is critical to maintain properlevels of

knowledge about the system configuration, the operational

environment, and the technology in both existing andnew systems.

We present a three-tierknowledgemanagementscheme through a

systematic planning of actions spanning thetransition processes in

levels from conceptual exploration toprototypedevelopment,

experimentation, and product evaluation.The three-tier scheme is

an integrated effort for bridging thedevelopment and operation

communities, maintaining stability tothe operational performance,

and adapting swiftly to softwaretechnology innovations. The scheme

combines experiences ofacademic researches and industrial

practitioners to providenecessary technical expertise and

qualifications for knowledgemanagement in software engineering

support (SES) processes.


Spre elements have typical signals for instance problem signals include

Look at the abstract about effort estimation.

Which phrases occur three or more times?

Can you think of a good title using some of those phrases?

Is this a descriptive or informative abstract?

Make a table with three columns: moves, SPRE steps and text

Label the move structure.

Label the SPRE structure

Exercise 2: mixed analysis


Exercise 2 repeated phrases

Exercise 2: Repeated phrases

Expert judgment-based effort estimation of software development work is

partly based on non-mechanical and unconscious processes. For this reason,

a certain degree of intra-person inconsistency is expected, i.e., the same

information presented to the same individual at different occasions

sometimes lead to different effort estimates. In this paper, we report from

an experiment where seven experienced software professionals estimated

the same sixty software development tasks over a period of three months.

Six of the sixty tasks were estimated twice. We found a high degree of

inconsistency in the software professionals’ effort estimates. The mean

difference of the effort estimates of the same task by the same estimator

was as much as 71%. The correlation between the corresponding estimates

was 0.7. Highly inconsistent effort estimates will, on average, be inaccurate

and difficult to learn from. It is consequently important to focus estimation

process improvement on consistency issues and thereby contribute to

reduced budget-overruns, improved time-to-market, and better quality

software .


Exercise 2 repeated phrases1

Exercise 2: Repeated phrases

Inconsistency of expert judgment-based estimates of software development

Expert judgment-based effortestimation of software development work is

partly based on non-mechanical and unconscious processes. For this reason,

a certain degree of intra-person inconsistency is expected, i.e., the same

information presented to the same individual at different occasions

sometimes lead to different effortestimates. In this paper, we report from

an experiment where seven experienced software professionals estimated

the same sixty software development tasks over a period of three months.

Six of the sixty tasks were estimated twice. We found a high degree of

inconsistency in the software professionals’ effortestimates. The mean

difference of the effortestimates of the same task by the same estimator

was as much as 71%. The correlation between the corresponding estimates

was 0.7. Highly inconsistenteffortestimates will, on average, be inaccurate

and difficult to learn from. It is consequently important to focus estimation

process improvement on consistency issues and thereby contribute to

reduced budget-overruns, improved time-to-market, and better quality

software.


Spre elements have typical signals for instance problem signals include

Exercise 2: Repeated phrases

Inconsistency of expert judgment-based estimates of software development


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