Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God
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Learning to Serve- Sword Sharpening Hilltop Church Men’s Bible Study April 14, 2008. John 18 and 19. John 18. Let’s Review! In the Garden We compared two gardens: Eden and Gethsemane The Betrayal Who was in charge? (V.4 – “…knowing all things”) How many men came to seize Jesus?

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John 18 and 19

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Mastering the sword of the spirit which is the word of god

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God

Learning to Serve- Sword Sharpening

Hilltop Church Men’s

Bible Study

April 14, 2008

John 18 and 19


John 18

John 18

  • Let’s Review!

    • In the Garden

      • We compared two gardens: Eden and Gethsemane

    • The Betrayal

      • Who was in charge? (V.4 – “…knowing all things”)

      • How many men came to seize Jesus?

      • “I am” – Ego eimi

      • “Let these go their way”

      • Jewish Trials

      • Roman Trials

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate

Before Pilate

  • V. 28

    • “It was early”: The fourth watch of the evening, 3-6 AM

    • Ritual of substance

      • Defiled if they entered a Gentile home

      • Blatant violations of trial rights

      • 30 pieces of silver vs. temple treasury

      • Execution of the Messiah on Passover

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate1

Before Pilate

  • V. 29

  • Praitorion, derived from Latin praetorium, the name of the official residence of a Roman Governor

  • Pontius Pilate

    • He was the Procurator of Judea, AD 26-36

    • In AD 36, he was deposed by Vitellius and sent to Rome, tried, and probably executed under Caligula

    • Ruled Judea in a reckless and arbitrary fashion

    • Josephus: Used temple funds to build an aqueduct

    • When people protested, they were beaten by Roman soldiers

    • Some believe funds given by Priests were in exchange for political favors. It would explain their initial expectation that he would take their word without formal charges

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate2

Before Pilate

  • V. 29

  • Roman law required three things:

    • 1) specific indictment

    • 2) bringing accusers before the accused (Acts 23:28)

    • 3) liberty granted to the accused to answer for himself (Acts 25:16)

  • “Pilot then went out unto them”: His interest was piqued

  • Their bluff was called (Luke 23:2)

  • V. 30 – They called Jesus a malefactor, “kokopoios”an evildoer, a criminal

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate3

Who is “Shiloh”?

Before Pilate

  • V. 31

  • “...your law”

    • Genesis 49:10

    • Acts 4:27, 28

“The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be. ”

“For of a truth against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together,

(28) For to do whatsoever thy hand and thy counsel determined before to be done.”

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate4

Before Pilate

  • V. 31

  • First of six attempts to release Jesus

    • “…judge Him according to your law”18:31

    • He is innocent18:38

    • Jews substitute Barabbas18:40

    • Partial punishment19:1

    • Play on pity19:5

    • “Behold your King”19:14

  • The Jews wanted Jesus crucified, to die under the curse of God (Galatians 3:13)

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate5

Before Pilate

  • V. 31 - 35

  • “...it is not lawful for us to put any man to death”

    • Compare to Matthew 20:19; John 3:14; 12:32,33

  • The classical Jewish death sentence: Stoning

    • Compare to Revelation 16:21 – God’s final judgment on Earth

  • Usually for blasphemy

    • They didn’t seek permission in case of Stephen (Acts 7:58)

  • Blasphemy was not a crime by Romans

    • There were three other charges (Luke 23:2, 5)

    • Treason could not be ignored

  • Where were the Gentile witnesses?

  • Pilot said, (V. 35) “Am I a Jew?” He represented the power of the world, at that time, and establishes that Israel had disclaimed their King

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate6

Before Pilate

  • V. 36

  • “Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world”

    • Compare to Daniel 7:13, 14; Luke 19:12

  • V. 37

  • “So then, you are a king!” (Does not appeal to His Messianic credentials; Matthew 11:3-5) ...a good confession 1 Timothy 6:13

    • …came I (vs. born) from Heaven...

  • Pilate formally recognizes Jesus as King on the inscription put on the cross!

  • Middle Ages Tradition: Pilate was converted before his death (No historical documentation)

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate7

Before Pilate

  • V. 38

  • “What is Truth?”

    • When the Word and deed become one

  • “I find in him no fault at all”

    • Pronounced Him innocent: he should have released Him! According to Roman Law, everything following is illegal

      • Chief priest’s remonstrance (Mark 15:3-12) Pilot sending Him to Herod, and abuse (Luke 23:5-18)

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate8

Before Pilate

  • V. 40

  • “Barabbas”

    • What does this name mean?

      • Bar – Son

      • Abba – Father

      • Barabbas – “Son of the Father”

John 5:43

“I am come in my Father's name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive.”

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate9

Before Pilate

The Jews chose a bandit – and own through their history, from that day to this, they have been robbed and plundered.Phillips

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Legal irregularities

Legal Irregularities

  • No prisoner could be convicted on his own evidence

  • It was the duty of a judge to see that the interests of the accused were fully protected

  • Preliminary hearings before a magistrate were completely foreign to the Jewish legal system

  • It was illegal to carry weapons on the feast day

  • The use of violence during the trial was apparently unopposed by the judges

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Legal irregularities1

Legal Irregularities

  • The binding of a prisoner before he was condemned was unlawful unless resistance was offered or expected - Jesus offered none

  • It was illegal for judges to participate in the arrest of the accused

  • No legal transactions, including a trial, could be conducted at night

  • The arrest was effected through a traitor

  • While an acquittal could be pronounced the same day, any other verdict required a majority of two and had to come on a subsequent day

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Legal irregularities2

Legal Irregularities

  • The judges sought false witnesses against Jesus

  • In a Jewish court the accused was to be assumed innocent until proved guilty by two or more witnesses

  • The Jews failed to find two witnesses agreeing against Jesus

  • When the witnesses first disagreed, the prisoner should have been released

  • No witness was ever called for the defense

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Legal irregularities3

Legal Irregularities

  • The trial under Caiaphas took place in his home rather than the council chamber where it should be held

  • The Court lacked the civil authority to condemn a man to death

  • It was illegal to conduct a session of the court on a feast day

  • A guilty verdict was rendered without evidence

  • The balloting was illegal. It should have been by roll with the youngest voting first. Here it is simultaneous

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Legal irregularities4

Legal Irregularities

  • The sentence is finally passed in the palace of the high priest, but the law demanded it be pronounced in the temple, in the hall of hewn stone

  • The high priest rends his garment (cf. Lev 21:10). He was never permitted to tear his official robe (If he did not have on his priestly robe, he couldn’t have put Christ under oath)

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


John 19

John 19

  • The most significant event in the history of mankind

  • Deicide

  • The ones He came to save did not just reject Him – they killed Him

  • The good news?

    • God is never surprised – when we slip up, He already knows

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate10

Jesus was sent to Herod and has returned (see Luke 23)

Before Pilate

  • V. 1

  • Pilate declares Jesus innocent butis becoming “uptight” over thewhole issue

  • “Scourged”: Scourged without cause(an illegal act before sentencing)

  • Pilate intended to chastise and then release Him(Luke 23:16)

  • The scourging was more severe than any of us realize

    • Jew’s limit: 39 lashes

    • Romans had no such limit

    • They often used rods

    • Hints at the severity

      • He couldn’t bear the cross (Luke 23:26)

      • He was unrecognizable as a human being (Isaiah 50:6, 52:13 and following)

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate11

Before Pilate

  • Isaiah 52:14 – A more accurate rendering may be something like this:

    • So marred from the form of man was his aspect that His appearance was not that of a son of man

Isaiah 50:6

“I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting.”

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate12

Before Pilate

7

  • Jesus was declared innocent on several occasions:

    • Judas: innocent bloodMatthew 27:4

    • Pilate: no fault in HimJohn 18:4

    • Herod, by PilateLuke 23:15

    • Pilate’s wifeMatthew 27:19

    • Dying thief: nothing amissLuke 23:41

    • Roman centurionLuke 23:47

    • Truly, Son of GodMatthew 27:54

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate13

Summarized

Predicted

Before Pilate

  • V. 2

    • “Crown of thorns” (Genesis 3:17, 18)

      • It is interesting how the Roman soldiers unknowingly fulfill prophecy

      • Burning thorn-bush, burning but not being consumed (model of mercy) – Believed to be the Acacia bush

      • Jesus is bearing this curse for us on the cross

      • This is Satan’s hour (Genesis 3:15; Luke 22:53; Revelation 12:4)

  • V. 3

    • Chaire, “Hail”: The greeting for Caesar (They were mocking Him)

Highlighted

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate14

Before Pilate

  • V. 4

    • “Pilot...went forth again”: Jews refused to enter the praetorium for fear of ritual defilement; the charges should have been dismissed

  • V. 6

    • “Crucify,” stauroson: Aorist imperative with no stated object; like fans in a stadium following cheerleaders...

    • Pilate proclaimed Him innocent (third time)

    • Jews charge of “King” (18:33, 37) not taken seriously

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate15

Before Pilate

7

  • How many times was Jesus before Pilate?

    OutsideInside

    18:28-3218:33-37

    18:38-4019:1-3

    19:4-719:8-11

    19:12-46

  • How many questions does Pilate ask Jesus?

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate16

Before Pilate

  • V. 7

  • “...made himself the Son of God”

    • New Charge!(How many were there in total?)

    • Blasphemy was the real reason(Leviticus 24:16)

    • To a pagan leader, the God-man possibility required investigation

      • Greek and Roman mythology filled with accounts of gods living among men

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate17

Before Pilate

  • Pilate Was Given Three Warnings:

    • The good witness of Christ 1 Timothy 6:13

    • Dream of his wife Matthew 27:19

    • Real motive of Sanhedrin revealedJohn 19:7

  • V. 9

  • “Whence art thou?”: Where are you from, really? Fear. (The sixth of seven questions...)

    • Jesus gave him no answer – he wasn’t entitled to any more revelation

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate18

Before Pilate

  • V. 11

  • “...no power at all against me except it were given thee from above”

    • Last official testimony before being crucified

    • It was predetermined (Acts 2:23; 4:27, 28)

    • God’s counsels do not relieve the guilt of the men who execute them (Luke 22:22)

  • “…therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.”

    • Who is Jesus talking about?

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate19

Before Pilate

  • The word for deliver is paradidomi

    • Used 15 times in John’s gospel, and 9 times is translated “betrayed” in connection with the sin of Judas in handing Jesus over to the Sanhedrin

    • John has already used the word twice in describing the action of the Sanhedrin in handing Jesus over to Pilate

    • Here, the Lord uses it specifically in reference to the High Priest

  • If Pilate’s abuse of his office was great and would one day be called to account by God, how much worse was the abuse of his holy office by Caiaphas?

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate20

Before Pilate

  • Throughout the Bible, the fact is established that human government is God-ordained and that those in positions of authority, whether they recognize it or not, are ultimately responsible to God for the way they conduct themselves in office

    • Proverbs 8:15; Romans 13:1 – 7)

  • Pilate’s authority (exousia) was derived from Caesar; both Pilate’s and Caesar’s authority were derived from God

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate21

Before Pilate

  • Pilate seeks every means to release Jesus

  • He had to choose between Christ and the world

  • He sought to release Him (Luke 23:20, 22; Acts 3:13)

  • Jesus’ trial before Pilate took place in seven stages (see slide 23)

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate22

Before Pilate

  • V. 12

  • “..not Caesar’s friend.”

    • They resort to blackmail

    • Caesar’s Friend: a formal title of honor among Romans

    • Personal loyalty questioned

  • Remember that Pilate probably still was recalled to Rome, tried, and executed

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate23

Before Pilate

  • V. 13

  • “Pavement”: Only other mention, Hebrew equivalent: In Ahaz’s surrender to abject apostasy (2 Kings 16:17)

    • Reference to a king (or leader) going into apostacy – Pilate is in the right place!

  • “Gabbatha” in Hebrew

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate24

Before Pilate

  • V. 14

  • “Passover”: Feast of Unleavened Bread (7-day celebration) was popularly called Passover(Luke 22:1; Numbers 28:16-17)

  • “Behold your King”: Pilate is (again) declaring Christ’s Kingship

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Passover

Passover

  • Passover

    • 14th of Nisan (can be any day of the week, including Saturday) – when Moses was told to put blood on the doorposts

    • The next day begins a 7-day celebration called Feast of Unleavened Bread (beginning on 15th of Nisan)

    • Feast of Firstfruits begins on the “morning after Shabbat after Passover”

      • Following Passover, may be the next day, may be 6 days later

    • Customary to speak of all of these as the “season of Passover”

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Passover1

Passover

  • Passover

    • Passover denotatively – 14th of Nisan

    • Passover connotatively – Collection of holidays

  • We do it too

    • Christmas day is 25th of December

    • Christmas season is *around* 25th of December

  • Luke 22:1

  • Numbers 28:16-17

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate25

Before Pilate

  • V. 15

    • “We have no king but Caesar”: Roman rule affirmed! (Probably the only time in their lives; they resented Rome) Isaiah 53:3; 49:7

      • The Result – An official denial of the King of the Jews

Hosea 3:4

“For the children of Israel shall abide many days without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an ephod, and without teraphim:”

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate26

Before Pilate

  • V. 16

  • “...led Him away”: “led” as lamb to the slaughter (Isaiah 53:7)

  • The most significant event in human history was about to be accomplished

  • There was no formal sentencing

  • Paredoken, “delivered” or “to give over to the side.”

    • Matthew 27:24-25: Pilate “washes his hands.” (Deut 21:1-6)

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate27

Before Pilate

  • V. 17

  • “...place of the skull”

    • Hebrew, Golgotha

    • Greek, Kranion

    • Latin, Calvaria(where we get the word Calvary)

    • Genesis 22; Hebrews 13:12

      • “outside the gate”

    • Lev 16:27 – Four blood sacrifices

      • “without” the camp...

      • The four gospels each present the crucifixion consistent with one of those four offerings

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Order of events

Order of Events

  • Probable – put together by examination (or harmony) of the four gospels

    1. Carrying His cross John 19:17

    2. Simon substituted Luke 23:26

    3. Offer of stupefying drink Matthew 27:34

    4. Nailed between two thieves John 19:18-24

    5. “Father, forgive them” [City of Refuge]Luke 23:34

    6. Jews mock Jesus Matthew 27:39-43

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Order of events1

Order of Events

7. One thief rails at Jesus; the other receives

salvation Luke 23:39-43

8. “Today shalt thou be with me” Luke 23:43

9. “Woman, Behold thy son” John 19:26,27

10. Darkness Matthew 27:45

11. “My God...” Matthew 27:46

12. “I Thirst” John 19:28

13. “It is finished” John 19:30

14. “Father, into thy hands...” Luke 23:46

15. Our Lord dismisses His spirit John 19:30

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The crucifixion

The Crucifixion

  • V. 18

  • “They crucified him”: Psalm 22:16; Isaiah 53:7, 12 (compare to Luke 23:39-43)

  • Crucifixion: Vector tensions, suffocation, relieved by the legs. Slow death (up to nine days)

  • This is where we get the word “excruciating”

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The crucifixion1

The Crucifixion

  • V. 19

  • “Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews”

    • By Pilate himself (Latin, titlon, official title, notice, bill of sale)

    • In three languages

      • Latin, official language of the empire

      • Greek, common international language

      • Hebrew

      • Pilate was a very well educated man…

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The crucifixion2

The Crucifixion

  • V. 21

  • Eikeinoseipen, emphatic “he said”

    • Pilate refused to change the inscription

    • Messianic proclamation officially acknowledged by the representative of the ruler of the world

  • V. 22

    • “What I have written I have written”

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The crucifixion3

The Crucifixion

  • V. 23

  • “...took his garments”

    • Garments = conduct

      • Psalm 22; 109:18; 1 Peter 5:5

    • Savior’s coat “seamless”

      • Isaiah 61:1

    • Robe given to prodigal son,

      • Luke 15

    • Adam clothed by God

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The crucifixion4

The Crucifixion

  • V. 26

  • Law required the firstborn to provide for parents; transferred to John

  • Even in His agony we see His shepherd’s heart

  • “Behold your son”: Jesus was her “Son” no longer

  • Mary is not mentioned in connection with Christ’s resurrection

  • Mary did have other children: Matthew 13:55, 56; Psalm 69:8

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The crucifixion5

The Crucifixion

  • V. 28

  • “...that the Scripture might be fulfilled”

    • Fulfills Psalm 69:21

  • “I thirst”

    • He balanced the clouds, and fills the mighty deep

    • He who guided every river in its course, waters the fields

    • He that caused water to flow from the smitten rock in the wilderness

    • He that turned water into wine

    • He that said to the Woman of Samaria: “Give me to drink.”

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The crucifixion6

The Crucifixion

  • V. 28

  • The King of Kings and Lord of Lords, before whom hell trembles and the earth is filled with dismay

  • Matchless condescension from the infinity of God to the weakness of a thirsting, dying man!

    And this was all for you!

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The crucifixion7

The Crucifixion

  • V. 30

  • “It is finished”: Tetelestai (Colossians 2:14)

  • The moment of His death was the moment of our salvation (Romans 6:3; Galatians 2:20)

  • Paid in Full – Done – There is nothing left for you to do

  • The Holy Spirit did not delay because of your unworthiness, nor need you delay because of your helplessness

  • “...gave up the spirit”: Willingly and deliberately surrendered His life (10:18)

  • Pilate marveled that he was already dead (Mark 15:44)

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The burial of christ

The Burial of Christ

  • V. 31

  • “...for that sabbath day was a high day”: Sabbaton, one of seven sabbaths in addition to the “Saturdays” - Feast of Unleavened Bread

  • Although they had just committed judicial murder, they were concerned about observing ritual law

  • Jesus had declared He would be in the grave three days, to Feast of First Fruits. He had to be in the grave that day. The enemies of God were unknowingly fulfilling God’s counsels!

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The burial of christ1

The Burial of Christ

  • V. 33

  • “They broke not his legs”

    • Bones not broken

    • Soldier did not follow instructions!

    • Exodus 12:46; Psalm 34:20

    • The Passover Lamb was not to have a bone broken

  • V. 34

    • “Forewith came there out blood and water”

    • Passover: wine mixed with warm water? Cause of death: ruptured (broken) heart (Psalm 69:20)

    • Compare with Eve taken out of Adam’s side: type of the church?

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The burial of christ2

אand ת

The Burial of Christ

  • V. 37

    • “...another Scripture saith” (not fulfilled yet); Zechariah 12:10 (aleph and tau)

“And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and

they shall look upon me את whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn.”

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The burial of christ3

The Burial of Christ

  • V. 38

  • “Joseph of Arimathea”:

    • 1) Access to the Procurator!? Not just anyone could get that close to Pilate

    • 2) Next of kin?

    • The Tomb: Belonged to a rich man (Joseph); Isaiah 53:9; 19:38; Matthew 27:59,60

      • Near crucifixion location 19:41

      • Never been used before 19:41

      • New sepulchre Numbers 19:9

      • Hewn out of a rock Mark 15:46

      • Stone rolled over the door Mark 15:46

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


The burial of christ4

The Burial of Christ

  • V. 40

  • “Spices” = aromaton, fumes

  • “Clothes” = othoniois, Greek for ship’s sails

  • 100 lbs of spices (12 oz/lb)

    • The women who witnessed this burial returned home to prepare spices and ointments to finish the procedure later (Luke 23:56)

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Mastering the sword of the spirit which is the word of god

?

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


Before pilate28

Before Pilate

What is the

soul?

7

  • V.31

  • “...your law”: Genesis 49:10; Acts 4:27, 28

  • First of six attempts to release Jesus

    • “You judge Him”………………………………….18:31

    • “He is innocent”………………………………….18:38

    • Jews substitute Barabbas…………………….18:39

    • Partial punishment……………………………..19:1

    • Play on pity………………………………………….19:5

    • “Behold your King”……………………………..19:14

“Simon Peter said unto him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered him, Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now; but thou shalt follow me afterwards.”

7

Mastering the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God


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