Bio 210 handout 5a epithelial muscle and nervous tissues
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BIO 210 Handout #5A – Epithelial, Muscle and Nervous Tissues. SHAPES. ARRANGEMENTS. Cell – basic structural and functional unit of living organisms Tissue – groups of cells that are similar in structure and function Histology – study of tissues Four primary tissue types – Epithelium –

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BIO 210 Handout #5A – Epithelial, Muscle and Nervous Tissues

SHAPES

ARRANGEMENTS

  • Cell – basic structural and functional unit of living organisms

  • Tissue – groups of cells that are similar in structure and function

  • Histology – study of tissues

  • Four primary tissue types –

  • Epithelium –

  • a. Covers surfaces such as;

  • I. External body surface

  • ii. Lines the cavities and tubules

  • iii. Generally marks off the inside from the outside.

  • b. Glands, endocrine and exocrine, are formed from epithelial membranes

  • Function: protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion & sensory reception

  • Characteristics: 1) fit closely together to form sheets or membranes

  • 2) Always have one free surface

  • 3) Attached to an adhesive basement membrane

  • 4) No blood supply of their own

  • 5) Can regenerate itself

  • Classified and named using two criteria:

  • Arrangement –

  • Simple – one layer of cells

  • Stratified – more than one layer of cells

  • Cell shape – Squamous or scale-like

  • Cuboidal or cube-like

  • Columnar or column-shaped

  • Two Exceptions:

  • Pseudostratified epithelium – simple columnar epithelium but the cells extend varied distances from the basement membrane; false appearance of being stratified

  • Transitional epithelium – stratified epithelium found in the bladder.

  • When empty, the apical cells are plump and rounded

  • When full, the apical cells are flattened. 1 of 5


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Epidermis

Esophagus

Simple Squamous Epithelia – single layer of flattened cells

Location: Air sacs of lungs, lining of heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, ventral cavity

Lung air sac

Stratified Squamous Epithelium – many cell layers. Basal cells are cuboidal, surface cells are flattened

Location: moist linings of esophagus, mouth, vagina.

Keratinized – skin epidermis

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium – single layer of cube-like cells, large central nucleus

Location: lining the digestive tract, gallbladder, ducts of some glands

Ciliated – small bronchi, uterine tubes, some parts of uterus

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Simple Columnar Epithelium – single layer of tall cells

May be ciliated and/or contain Goblet cells

Location: lining digestive tract, gallbladder, ducts of some glands

Ciliated – small bronchi, uterine tubes, some parts of uterus

Trachea

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium – single layer of cells of differing heights

Nuclei seen at different levels; may contain Goblet cells

Location: ducts of large glands, part of male urethra

Ciliated – trachea, most of upper respiratory tract

Transitional Epithelium – resembles both stratified squamous & stratified cuboidal

Surface cells may be dome-shaped or flattened

Location: bladder, ureters, part of the urethra

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Muscle Tissue – highly specialized to contract in order to produce movement of some body parts. Cells are quite elongated to provide a long axis for contraction.

Three basic types:

1. Skeletal – long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells; obvious striations (bands

attached to the skeleton. It is under voluntary control.

Function: Contractions move the limbs and other external body parts

2. Cardiac Muscle – found only in the heart; Cardiac cells are uninucleate.

Branch & connect to other cardiac muscle cells at junctions called intercalated discs. It is under involuntary control.

Function: when contraction occurs, blood is propelled through the blood

vessels

3. Smooth Muscle – visceral muscle, Spindle shaped cells with central nucleus, no striationsforms sheets;found mainly in the walls of hollow organs (digestive & urinary tract organs, uterus, blood vessels). They are under involuntary control.

Function: Contraction constricts or dilates the lumen and propels substances forward.

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Nervous Tissue – two major cell populations

Neuroglia – special supporting cells that protect, support and insulate delicate neurons

Neurons – highly specialized with a nucleus-containing cell body and their

cytoplasm drawn out into long extensions. Found in the brain, spinal cord, nerves

Function: - transmit nerve impulses from sensory receptors to effectors (muscles & glands)

Neuron

Identify the following tissues:

A.

B.

D. _____________________

C. Identify the

tissue lining

the lumen of

the vein

E. ____________________

F._____________________________

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