Grs lx 865 topics in linguistics
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GRS LX 865 Topics in Linguistics. Week 9. Sentence processing and Linger. What are we trying to determine?. Your task for today was to create items for the Linger experiment that take the form: PN 1 verb [ CP that PN 2 verb XXX YYY ZZZ…

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GRS LX 865 Topics in Linguistics

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Grs lx 865 topics in linguistics

GRS LX 865Topics in Linguistics

Week 9. Sentence processingand Linger


What are we trying to determine

What are we trying to determine?

  • Your task for today was to create items for the Linger experiment that take the form:

    • PN1 verb [CPthat PN2 verb XXX YYY ZZZ…

  • When XXX is a pronoun, it matches PN1 in gender; when XXX is an anaphor, it matches PN2 in gender; and…

    • a: XXX is a pronoun, PN1 and PN2don’t match in gender.

    • b: XXX is a pronoun, PN1 and PN2match in gender.

    • c: XXX is an anaphor, PN1 and PN2match in gender.

    • d: XXX is an anaphor, PN1 and PN2don’t match in gender.

  • Binding theory says that PN2 shouldn’t matter for a-b, PN1 shouldn’t matter for c-d. How soon does BT remove these as candidate antecedents?


How can we tell

How can we tell?

  • PN1 verb [CPthat PN2 verb XXX YYY ZZZ…

  • a: XXX is a pronoun, PN1 and PN2don’t match in gender.

  • b: XXX is a pronoun, PN1 and PN2match in gender.

  • c: XXX is an anaphor, PN1 and PN2match in gender.

  • d: XXX is an anaphor, PN1 and PN2don’t match in gender.

  • Is there a difference between a and b?

  • Is there a difference between c and d?

  • Is there a difference between a-b and c-d?


  • Factoring out variation

    Factoring out variation

    • To determine if “there is a difference” between any of these conditions, we need to be very careful to try to minimize and isolate the kind of variation we find.

      • Part of that can be done with the items: we want them to be as consistent as possible, differing only in the properties we’re investigating.

      • To that end…


    Items

    Items

    • # binding3 1 aCindy and Patrick ran over to the teacher.Patrick said that Cindy cut him with a pair of scissors.? Did Patrick run? Y

    • Context sentence: Introduce the individuals so we don’t have both whatever processing there normally is for a proper name and the construction of a referent in the reader’s model of the world.

    • Bisyllabic names: In case it takes longer to read/process bisyllabic names than monosyllabic names, all names have been changed to be two syllables (and have a clear gender).

    • Answerable questions: Make the questions actually follow from what the subject read. E.g., not Did Cindy cut Patrick?.


    Items1

    Items

    • # binding3 1 aCindy and Patrick ran over to the teacher.Patrick said that Cindy cut him with a pair of scissors.? Did Patrick run? Y

    • # binding3 10 aAmy and Marcus worked together well, but one thing bothered Amy.Amy wished that Marcus would trust her more with important decisions.? Does Amy want to be trusted more? Y

    • # binding3 17 dThe long drive to Cleveland was just beginning.John didn’t think that Annie would write herself a letter.? Was the drive to Cleveland almost over? N

    • Comparison: Think about how we need to do this. We’ll be looking at all of the sentences in condition a to see if there is a delay at the point of herself/her/himself/him(or just after). So, what word is it? Ah.

    • Tags: I didn’t use tags here, but this is where they would be useful.

      • [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] would [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

    • This would allow us to compare the time on “v2” wherever it is.


    Lingalyzer condition files

    Lingalyzer condition files

    • To use Lingalyzer on a set of data collected by Linger, we need to tell it what the conditions of the experiment looked like. This is done in the condition file.

    • Here we have four conditions:

      • a. pronoun mismatch

      • b. pronoun match

      • c. anaphor match

      • d. anaphor mismatch


    Lingalyzer condition files1

    Lingalyzer condition files

    • set COND_NAME“binding3 a”set ANOVA_FACTORS“pronoun mismatch”set GRAPH_LABEL“A) pronoun mismatch”set REGIONS“1:1-3 2:4 3:5 4:6 5:7 6:8 7:9-99”addCondition

    • Patrick said that Cindy cut him with a pair of scissors. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

    • COND_NAME must match the experiment name and the condition name in your items file.


    Lingalyzer preprocessing subjects

    Lingalyzer:Preprocessing subjects

    • MacOS X instructions:

    • Terminal:get to the experiment directory (e.g., Binding3).

      • ln -s ../../Lingalyzer/lingalyzer

      • ln -s ../../Lingalyzer/anova

      • ln -s ../../Lingalyzer/regress

        • Steps above need only been done once…

      • ./lingalyzer binding3.cnd -f '[eq $EXPT filler]' -p ../Results

        • Recommendation about which subjects to remove (lower than 66% correct answers on the fillers), reading time over 2.5 standard deviations above the mean on the fillers.

        • To actually drop a subject, remove the .dat file from the Results folder.


    Lingalyzer collect the data

    Lingalyzer: Collect the data

    • The next step prior to a full-on analysis of the data we have is to gather it together into a single file.

    • This “pre-processing” is invoked by doing this:

      • ./lingalyzer binding3.cnd -c ../Results

    • This can take a little while, depending on how many subjects and items you have. What it is doing is computing statistical information about the success subjects had on question-answering, and about subjects’ reading times.


    Lingalyzer querying the data

    Lingalyzer: Querying the data

    • Once the pre-processing is done, there are several different things we can ask about.

    • Options for a lingalyzer call:

      • -isets independent variables ($EXPT, $COND, $ITEM, $SUBJ, $RNUM)

      • -dsets dependent variables ($RWRT, $RSRT, $QCRC)

      • -fsets the filter (which data points to considering)

      • -rindicates we care about reading time.

      • -qindicates that we care about answer correctness.

      • file(creates file.avg)


    Computing anovas

    Computing ANOVAs

    • Options for a lingalyzer call:

      • -isets independent variables, first is the random var., $ANOV will use ANOVA_FACTORS fromthe .cnd file.

      • -dsets dependent variable (just one, e.g., $RSRT)

      • -fsets the filter (which data points to considering)

      • -aANOVA mode, must precede -r or -q, followedby list of column headings.

      • -rindicates we care about reading time.

      • -qindicates that we care about answer correctness.

      • file(creates file.anv is the input, file.anova is the output)


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