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Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Software. Thursday February 23, 2006. Reminders. Reading Fundamentals text, Chapter Four, Telecommunications and Networks Homework Homework Two due Friday, 2/24 by 5pm Next week’s class session: Telecommunications and Networks.

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reminders
Reminders
  • Reading
      • Fundamentals text, Chapter Four, Telecommunications and Networks
  • Homework
    • Homework Two due Friday, 2/24 by 5pm
  • Next week’s class session: Telecommunications and Networks
systems software operating systems
Systems Software: Operating Systems
  • Operating system (OS): set ofprograms that control the hardware and act as an interface with applications
  • Common hardware functions
    • Get input (e.g., keyboard)
    • Retrieve data from disks and store data on disks
    • Display information on a monitor or printer
operating systems1
Operating Systems
  • User interface
    • Allows individuals to access and command the computer system
    • Command-based user interface: uses text commands
    • Graphical user interface (GUI): uses icons and menus to send commands to the computer system
    • Bringing Vista to life
operating systems2
Operating Systems
  • Hardware independence
    • Application program interface (API): allows applications to make use of the operating system
  • Memory management
    • Control how memory is accessed and maximize available memory and storage
slide7

Operating Systems

  • Processing tasks
    • Multitasking: more than one program running at the same time
    • Time-sharing: more than one person using a computer system at the same time
    • Scalability: ability to handle an increasing number of concurrent users smoothly
  • Networking capability: features that aid users in connecting to a computer network
operating systems3
Operating Systems
  • Access to system resources
    • Protection against unauthorized access
    • Logons and passwords
  • File management
    • Ensures that files in secondary storage are
      • Available when needed
      • Protected from access by unauthorized users
linux personal operating system
Linux: Personal Operating System
  • Novell’s Linux Desktop 10
    • Designed to go head-to-head against Windows
    • Includes
      • Desktop operating system
        • Desktop search feature
        • Desktop note-taking technology
      • OpenOffice.org office productivity suite
      • Mozilla Firefox
      • Instant-messaging client
      • Open-source collaboration client
      • F-Spot personal photo management application
      • Technical support
    • Working with software vendors to develop more applications for Linux
  • HP delivers Linux laptop
linux workgroup and enterprise operating system
Linux: Workgroup and Enterprise Operating System
  • Open source operating systems (Linux)
    • Increasing comfort level with this alternative
    • Dominates as server operating system
    • Why?
      • Lower total cost of ownership
      • Lower capital investment
      • Greater reliability and uptime compared to commercial alternatives
      • Greater flexibility and control
      • Faster, cheaper application development
application software
Application Software
  • Gives users the ability to solve problems and perform specific tasks
  • Interacts with systems software; systems software then directs the hardware to perform the tasks
  • Software spheres of influence
    • Personal
    • Work group
    • Enterprise
    • Value Chain
personal productivity application software
Personal Productivity Application Software
  • Designed primarily for individual use
  • Support individual productivity
  • Major categories
    • Word processing
    • Spreadsheet
    • Database
    • Graphics
  • Often purchased as suites of software
workgroup application software
Workgroup Application Software
  • Workgroup application software: supports teamwork, whether people are in the same location or dispersed around the world
  • Groupware: software that helps groups of people work together more efficiently and effectively
  • NetMeeting
workgroup software
Workgroup Software
  • Workgroup software applications
    • Email
    • Instant messaging
    • Video conferencing
    • Application sharing
    • Whiteboards
    • Task scheduling
    • Centralized storage of group files
    • File version control
groupware
Groupware
  • Real-time
    • Web conferencing
    • Instant messaging
    • Support online meetings to work through issues, review plans
  • Asynchronous
    • Online collaborative workspaces
    • E-mail
    • Allow collaborators to contribute on their own schedule
  • Collaborative suites
    • Messaging
    • Calendaring
    • Document management
    • Workflow automation
    • Archives of discussions and document versions
groupware1
Groupware

Tool Choice

When supporting person-to-person or group-to-group collaboration, think about the

complexity of the interaction and whether individuals or teams will be working together

in real-time or on their own schedules

groupware examples
Groupware Examples
  • Aerospace industry
    • Next-generation jets designed by engineers working together from around the globe
  • Proctor & Gamble
    • Collaborating researchers applied paper engineering know-how from the company’s paper towel business to its home-care group’s Swiffer mops
enterprise application software
Enterprise Application Software
  • Software that benefits an entire organization
  • Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software: programs that manage a company’s vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization
enterprise software applications
Enterprise Software Applications

In an ERP suite, all of these applications would be software

modules that you could buy separately or in combination

software development
Software Development
  • Proprietary software: unique program for a specific application, usually developed and owned by a single company
  • Off-the-shelf software: purchased software
    • Customized package
  • Application Service Provider (ASP)
software development1
Software Development
  • Do not develop proprietary application software unless doing so will meet a compelling business need that can provide a competitive advantage.
  • BUILD VS. BUYThe basic arguments in the buy-vs.-build debate remain unchanged. WHY BUILD? Avoid painful vendor licensing terms Gain competitive advantage Adapt to new technology, such as grid computing
  • WHY BUY? Leverage vendors’ economies of scale Gain broader integration capabilities Ensure that code knowledge won’t be lost
software development example
Software Development Example
  • Hyundai Information Service North America LLC
    • IT arm of Hyundai Motor America
    • Builds own software offshore
    • Why?
      • More customization
      • Small, unique applications
      • No licensing annoyances
        • Example: switch from concurrent users to name seat licensing would have raised cost by $3,300 per user for a purchased application
application service providers
Application Service Providers
  • Software service providers
    • Salesforce.com
    • Rearden Commerce
    • JRG Systems
  • Will host
    • Customer relationship management (CRM) systems
    • Travel planning systems
    • Supply chain management systems
    • Many more
  • Advantages
    • Quick
    • Easy
    • Relatively inexpensive
  • Disadvantage
    • Won’t get 100% of the features you want or would get with a customized software package
software development programming languages
Software Development:Programming Languages
  • Sets of keywords, symbols, and a system of rules for constructing statements
  • Allow humans to communicate instructions to be executed by a computer
  • Syntax: a set of rules associated with a programming language
  • Different languages have characteristics that make them appropriate for particular types of applications
software development2
Software Development
  • Choose a programming language whose functional characteristics are appropriate for the task at hand, taking into consideration the skills and experience of the programming staff.
software development rules to live by
Software DevelopmentRules to Live By
  • Prepare three separate time and cost estimates based on past experience, software functionality and a formal estimating technique, and compare actual results with predictions
  • Adopt a standard notation scheme and methodology for design and coding
  • Automate control of the development process and link it to a project-management tool
  • Use joint application design for requirements analysis
  • Practice iterative development
  • Institute a formal change-request process to prevent scope creep
  • Establish centres of excellence-encourage the development of specialists in each development procedure
  • Measure productivity and defect removal
  • Employ component-based development
  • Institute version control
  • Design and test for usability
  • Practice code inspections and walk-throughs
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