Writing and naming ionic compounds
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 40

WRITING AND NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 58 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

WRITING AND NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS. When atoms combine, it’s always in simple whole number ratios. The smallest unit of atomic combinations that retains the characteristics of the compound is a molecule.

Download Presentation

WRITING AND NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Writing and naming ionic compounds

WRITING AND NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS


Writing and naming ionic compounds

When atoms combine, it’s always in simple whole number ratios

The smallest unit of atomic combinations that retains the characteristics of the compound is amolecule


Writing and naming ionic compounds

The composition of a molecule can be represented in two waysaseither anempirical formula or a molecular formula

C3H6

CH2

An empirical formula gives thesimplest ratioof atoms in a compound

A molecular formula tells how many

of each atom

are present

in the compound


Writing and naming ionic compounds

A remarkable feature of com-pounds formed from elements is that the properties of the reactant elements islost

+


Writing and naming ionic compounds

In order to become more stable an some atoms find it energetically fea-sible to either lose or gain valence electrons.

Atoms that lose e- are positive A.K.A. cation

Atoms that gain e- are negative

A.K.A. anion


Writing and naming ionic compounds

We tend to focus specifically on the loss or gain of the outer s, p, (A.K.A. valence e-) ,and sometimes the d e- of unfilled d sublevels).

The valence e- an atom contains has a direct effect on the charge the atom develops as it forms an ionic bond.

We have a list of the common ionic charges developed during ionic bonding.


Writing and naming ionic compounds

SOME COMMON CATIONS

(Note: the names of many of the ions include Roman numerals. These numerals are known as the Stock system of naming chemical ions and elements)

+1

+2

+3

+4

Magnesium

Lead (IV)

Mg+2

Pb+4

Aluminum

Al+3

Lithium

Li+1

Vanadium (IV)

Ca+2

V+4

Chromium(III)

Cr+3

Sodium

Na+1

Calcium

Tin (IV)

Sn+4

Iron (III)

Cr+3

Potassium

K+1

Strontium

Sr+2

MONATOMIC IONS

Vanadium (III)

V+3

Rubidium

Rb+1

Barium

Ba+2

Cesium

Cs+1

Cadmium

Cd+2

Copper (I)

Cs+1

Chromium (II)

Cr+2

Silver

Ag+1

Cobalt

Co+2

Copper (II)

Cu+2

Iron (II)

Fe+2


Writing and naming ionic compounds

SOME COMMON CATIONS

(Note: the names of many of the ions include Roman numerals. These numerals are known as the Stock system of naming chemical ions and elements)

+1

+2

+3

+4

Lead (II)

Pb+2

Mn+2

Manganese (II)

MONATOMIC IONS

Mercury (II)

Hg+2

Nickel (II)

Ni+2

Tin (II)

Sn+2

Vanadium (II)

V+2

Zinc

Zn+2


Writing and naming ionic compounds

SOME COMMON ANIONS

(Note: the names of many of the ions include Roman numerals. These numerals are known as the Stock system of naming chemical ions and elements)

-1

-2

-3

-4

MONATOMIC IONS

Fluoride

Nitride

N-3

Oxide

F-1

Pb-2

S-2

Chloride

Cl-1

Sulfide

Phosphide

P-3

Bromide

Br-1

Iodide

I-1


Writing and naming ionic compounds

-2

-3

+1

C

O

N

H

P

O

-1

3

O

H

4

4

There are also combinations of covalently bonded atoms that also have a charge called polyatomic ions

Poly- means many, but we treat each of these polyatomic ions as a single unit with a single charge


Writing and naming ionic compounds

POLYATOMIC IONS


Writing and naming ionic compounds

POLYATOMIC IONS


Writing and naming ionic compounds

Today is all about combining these electrically charged ions together to form stable compounds.

Reminder: when two atoms combine transferring valence electrons it is called an ionic bond.

Oppositely charged ions attract each other and form an ionic bond that is electrically neutral, to establish a molecule that is neutral.


Writing and naming ionic compounds

Looking at the structure of salt shows that the attraction between ions is so great that many sodium ions and chloride ions become involved.


Writing and naming ionic compounds

The results of each ion being surrounded by several other ions allows the attraction between oppositely charged ions to be muchgreaterthan the repulsion between ions with thesame charge.

The strong attraction between the ions, & the orderly arrangement in the crystal affect the properties of the compound.


Writing and naming ionic compounds

Cations & anions are pulled together in a tightly packed structure, giving each crystal a characteristic shape

The simplest repeating unit of anions and cations is called a unit cell.


Writing and naming ionic compounds

Predicting the formation of ionic cmpnds

We can predict the combinations of ions and the formation of their ionic formulas, knowing how ions interact

We can have 2 different kinds of ionic compounds formed: binary or ternary


Writing and naming ionic compounds

WRITING IONIC FORMULAS

There are a couple of rules to follow to make sure that the proper ionic formula is written.


Writing and naming ionic compounds

RULE #1

Ions will combine only inthe simplestwhole numberratiowhich cancels out the charge to form a neutral compound

The sum of the ions’ charges must be zero

3(+1) + (-3) = 0

+2 + (-2) = 0


Writing and naming ionic compounds

RULE #2

The compound formula is ALWAYS written with the cation first then the anion.

It’s better to be positive than negative 

NaCl

ClNa


Writing and naming ionic compounds

+1

-1

K

I

+

+2

-2

Mg

O

+

Some ionic compounds’ charges automatically cancel each other out.

KI

MgO


Writing and naming ionic compounds

What if we were forming ionic compounds with ions whose charges don’t add up to a charge of 0?

How do we decide the proper ratio of cations and anions?


Writing and naming ionic compounds

+3

-1

Al

Cl

+

+3

-1

AlCl

Al

3 Cl

+

3

=2

What if we had three chlorine ions for every one Aluminum ion?


Writing and naming ionic compounds

+3

-2

Al

O

&

+3

-2

Al O

2 Al

3 O

&

3

2

We need to find the ratio

of ions that will make the charges cancel out to a neutral compound.


Writing and naming ionic compounds

We have a trick that will help us know the number of the ions to make a neutral compound.

IT’S NOT A TRICK SO MUCH AS A SHORTCUT!


Writing and naming ionic compounds

+3

-1

Al

Cl

AlCl

+

3

+2

-3

Ca

P

Ca

P

+

3

2

CRISS-CROSS RULE:


Writing and naming ionic compounds

Using polyatomic ions

To write the formulas for compounds containing polyatomic ions, follow the rules for writing formulas for binary compounds, with one additional consideration.

We add parentheses around the polyatomic ion when more than one of the ion is needed to develop the proper ratio.


Writing and naming ionic compounds

-1

OH

+

+3

Al

Al(OH)

3

-2

+1

Na

SO

+

4

Na SO

4

2


Writing and naming ionic compounds

Ca+2 & O-2

Sn+4 & CO3-2

NH4+1 & SO4-2

Mg+2 & C2H3O2-1

Practice Writing Formulas

CaO

Sn(CO3)2

(NH4)2SO4

Mg(C2H3O2)2


Writing and naming ionic compounds

NAMING THEM

  • Most of the time you can name an ionic compound by

    • 1) Writing the name of the first element

    • 2) Writing therootof the name of the second element

    • 3) Adding-ideto the root


Writing and naming ionic compounds

NAMING THEM

CaCl2 

K3P 

Al2S3

Calcium chloride

Potassium phosphide

Aluminum sulfide


Writing and naming ionic compounds

NAMING THEM

Some of our metals have more than one ionic charge

  • We have to determine the charge on the metal

  • We then indicate the charge as a roman numeral


Writing and naming ionic compounds

NAMING THEM

FeCl2 

FeCl3

PbBr2

Iron(II) chloride

Iron (III) chloride

Lead (II) bromide


Writing and naming ionic compounds

NAMING THEM

If the compound has a polyatomic ion in it

1) name the first element, including the roman numeral if appropriate

2) then name the polyatomic ion


Writing and naming ionic compounds

NAMING THEM

Fe(OH)2 

Ca3 (PO4)2 

Na2SO4

Iron(II) hydroxide

Calcium phosphate

Sodium sulfate


Writing and naming ionic compounds

Strontium Nitrite 

Sr(NO2)2

CuOH 

Copper (I) hydroxide

Lead (IV) phosphide 

Pb3P4

NH4OH 

Ammonium hydroxide

Sodium carbonate 

Na2CO3


  • Login