The Tools of our Trade: AACR2/RDA and MARC
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The Tools of our Trade: AACR2/RDA and MARC Ann Chapman Policy & Advice Team. UKOLN is supported by:. What are our Tools?. AACR/RDA = content standard for resource description and access

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Ukoln is supported by

The Tools of our Trade: AACR2/RDA and MARC

Ann Chapman

Policy & Advice Team

UKOLN is supported by:


What are our tools

What are our Tools?

  • AACR/RDA = content standard for resource description and access

  • MARC = communication and exchange format providing a structure for encoding the content of bibliographic and authority data

    Related to:

  • ISBD = rules that organise the bibliographic description of an item in a catalogue

  • FRBR = a entity-relational model of the data required to find, identify, select and obtain resources


Isbds

ISBDs

  • International Standard Bibliographic Descriptions

  • Developed 1969 onwards by IFLA

  • Defined seven areas of description and their order

    • Title

    • Statement of Responsibility

    • Edition

    • Resource specific information

    • Publication details

    • Physical description

    • Series information

    • Notes and standard identifiers


Ukoln is supported by

FRBR

  • Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records

  • IFLA study 1998

  • Entity-relationship model that defines:

    • Tasks: find, identify, select, obtain

    • Resource relationships:work, expression, manifestation, item

    • Entities: people, corporate bodies

    • Entities: concepts, objects, events, places


Ukoln is supported by

AACR

  • Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules

    • A content standard for bibliographic description and access

    • Bibliographic – not just books

  • Key principles

    • One principle entry per resource

    • Catalogue from item in hand

    • Chief source of information


Aacr timeline

AACR timeline

  • 1967 UK and US editions

  • 1978 2nd unified edition, consistent with ISBDs

  • 1997 Toronto conference on AACR2

  • 1998 FRBR

  • 2005 Develop RDA not AACR3

  • 2009 RDA launch (provisional)


Aacr 2

AACR 2

  • Part 1: Description

    • Chapter 1: General rules

    • Chapters 2 -12: Resource type - specific rules

    • Chapter 13: Analytic entries

  • Part 2: Headings, Uniform Titles, References

    • Chapter 21: Choice of access points

    • Chapters 22 – 26: Construction of access points

  • Appendices

    • A: Capitalisation, B: Abbreviations, C: Numerals,D: Glossary, E: Initial articles


What s wrong with aacr

What’s wrong with AACR?

  • Increasingly complex

  • Lack of logical structure

  • Mixing content and carrier data

  • Seriality and hierarchical relationships

  • Anglo-American centric viewpoint

  • Written before FRBR

  • Not enough support for collocation

  • Unclear relationship with MARC Format


Rda the aims

RDA – The Aims

  • Rules should be easy to use and interpret

  • Be applicable to an online, networked environment

  • Provide effective bibliographic control for all types of media

  • Encourage use beyond the library community

  • Be compatible with other similar standards

  • Have a logical structure based on internationally agreed principles

  • Separate content and carrier data

  • Examples – more of them, more appropriate


How is rda being developed

How is RDA being developed?

  • Joint Steering Committee (JSC)

  • ACOC, ALA, BL, CCC, CILIP, LC

  • Editor: Tom Delsey

  • Task focused working groups

    • GMD/SMD, Examples

  • Draft – responses – revised drafts – responses/acceptance

  • Final product – the publishers


Rda timelime

RDA Timelime

  • 2005

    • Prospectus issued

    • Draft of chapters relating to description

    • Content and carrier studies

  • 2006 and 2007

    • Further drafts of chapters on description and access

    • Work on appendices and glossary

  • 2008

    • First public view of online product (in August at IFLA conference)

  • 2009

    • Launch of online product


What will rda look like 1

What will RDA look like? - 1

  • Section 1: Recording manifestation attributes

    • Ch. 1 General guidelines

    • Ch. 2 Identifying manifestations and items

    • Ch. 3 Describing carriers (technical description)

    • Ch. 4 Providing acquisition and access information (terms of availability, etc.)


What will rda look like 2

What will RDA look like? - 2

  • Section 2: Recording attributes of work and expression

    • Ch. 5 General guidelines (incl. construction of access points for works and expressions)

    • Ch. 6 Identifying works and expressions (e.g. uniform and collective titles, etc.)

    • Ch. 7 Describing additional attributes of works and expressions (incl. nature and coverage of content, intended audience, etc.)


What will rda look like 3

What will RDA look like? - 3

  • Section 3: Ch. 8, 9, 10, 11Recording attributes of person, family and corporate body (= name headings)

  • Section 4: Ch. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16Recording attributes of concept, object, event and place (= subject headings)

  • Section 5: Ch. 17Recording primary relationships between work, expression, manifestation and item

  • Section 6: Ch. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22Recording relationships to persons, families and corporate bodies associated with a resource


What will rda look like 4

What will RDA look like? – 4

  • Section 7: Ch. 23Recording subject relationships

  • Section 8: Ch. 24, 25, 26, 27, 28Recording relationships between works, expressions, manifestations and items

  • Section 9: Ch. 29, 30, 31, 32Recording relationships between persons, families and corporate bodies

  • Section 10: Ch. 33, 34, 35, 36, 37Recording relationships between concepts, objects, events and places


What will rda look like 5

What will RDA look like? - 5

  • Appendices

    A: Capitalisation

    B: Abbreviations

    C: Initial articles

    D: Record syntaxes for descriptive data

    E: Record syntaxes for access point control data

    F: Additional instructions on names of persons

    G: Titles of nobility, rank, etc.

    H: Conversion of dates to Gregorian calendar

    J, K, L, M: Relationship designators

    Glossary

    Index


Rda what will it be

RDA – What will it be?

  • An online resource, potentially:

    • Complete text

    • Concise text

    • Tailored texts (law, medical, etc.)

    • Training resource

    • Incorporated into LMS cataloguing modules

  • Loose-leaf print version(s)


Rda and beyond

RDA and beyond

  • RDA aims to be:

    • Independent of communication formats

      • UNIMARC, MARC, MARCXML, MODS/MADS

      • DC, EAD, ISBD, VRA, MPEG7

    • Compatible / better aligned with other similar standards

      • Archives: ISAD(G)

      • Museums: Cataloging Cultural Objects


Rda and marc

RDA and MARC

  • Mapping RDA and MARC 21

    • Report issued in Nov. 2006 and discussed at MARBI Midwinter 2007

  • How will RDA impact on MARC 21?

    • Are new fields or subfields needed?

  • How will MARC 21 impact on RDA?

    • Data provisions in MARC 21 not covered in current draft of RDA


Marc 1960s

MARC – 1960s

  • Library of Congress project

    • Database of catalogue records

    • Production of catalogue cards

  • US & UK versions

    • Reflected differing cataloguing practices

    • Developed in parallel but not identical ways


Marc 1970s

MARC – 1970s

Variant formats developed

  • Based on either US or UK formats (AUSMARC, DANMARC, KORMARC, etc.)

  • USMARC developed 8 material formats (Books, Serials, Maps, etc.)

    UNIMARC developed in 1977 by IFLA

  • Intended as exchange format

  • Used as the Bib format in some countries (e.g. France)


Marc recent changes

MARC – Recent changes

  • Expansion of USMARC to a family of formats

    • Bibliographic, Holdings, Authority, Classification, Community Information

  • Integration of USMARC bibliographic format

    • Previous 8 formats integrated

  • Widespread adoption of MARC 21

    • Some countries simply adopt USMARC

    • 1997 – USMARC & CANMARC become MARC 21

    • 2003/4 – MARC 21 enhanced by UK proposals; British Library adopts MARC 21

    • 2006/7 – MARC 21 enhanced by German proposals: this will enable libraries to move from MAB to MARC 21


Marc structure

MARC Structure

  • Leader

  • 0xx – control numbers, coded data

  • 1xx – primary access point

  • 2xx – description, GMD, edition, publication

  • 3xx – physical description

  • 4xx – series

  • 5xx – notes

  • 6xx – subject access points

  • 7xx – additional access points

  • 8xx – series added entries

  • 9xx – local fields


Maintaining marc 21

Maintaining MARC 21

  • Twice yearly MARBI meetings

    • Discussion papers

    • Proposals

  • UK and MARC 21

    • BIC Bibliographic Standards Group

    • [email protected]


Marc and xml

MARC and XML

  • MARC has alpha-numeric 3-digit tags

    • 100.1 Personal Name

    • 245 $a Title $b Subtitle

  • XML has element labels

    • <namePersonIndirectOrder>

    • <title> <titleSubtitle> <titleCoverTitle>


Looking into the crystal ball

Looking into the crystal ball

  • FRBR

    • Potential influence on cataloguing systems

    • Authority records, uniform titles, work records

  • OPACs

    • Multiple interfaces for different audiences

    • Enhance for accessibility - supports all users

    • Links (actual resources, restrictions, supporting or associated resources)

  • RDA

    • Used outside the library domain


Contact details

Contact details

  • Ann Chapman

  • [email protected]

  • http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/bib-man/


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