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AMERICAN HISTORY. 1607 – Present Day. Chapter 3, Section 1 The English defeat of the Spanish Armada ended Spanish control of the seas. England could start colonies in North America.

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1607 – Present Day

  • Chapter 3, Section 1

  • The English defeat of the Spanish Armada ended Spanish control of the seas.

  • England could start colonies in North America.

  • In April 1607, ships entered Chesapeake Bay and named their settlement Jamestown to honor their king, King James I.

  • First settlement was Jamestown in the colony of Virginia in 1607.

  • Captain John Smith arrived in 1608 to govern the colonists.

  • John Rolfe discovered how to grow tobacco and it was the first crop grown in England.

  • Relations with the Native Americans improved when Rolfe married the chief’s daughter Pocahontas.

  • The colonists would farm their own land and make a profit off of it. They became competitive.

  • Colonists who paid their own way to America were given 100 acres of land.

  • Colonists sent representatives to an assembly to make local laws.

  • The House of Burgesses met for the first time on July 30, 1619.

End Section 1

  • Chapter 3, Section 2

  • There were two religious groups in England:

    • Anglican Church = Puritans

    • Those who wanted to set up their own church = Separatist/Pilgrims

  • If the Separatist would settle in Virginia they could practice their religion freely.

  • They must share their profits with the company.

  • The Separatist are the pilgrims.

  • The Mayflower took Pilgrims to settle the Virginia Colony.

  • They stopped at Plymouth due to harsh winter.

  • The Virginia Company laws did not apply in Plymouth.

  • They developed the Mayflower Compact to provide laws to live by.

  • It was the beginning of a representative government or self government.

  • The Indians taught the Pilgrims how to hunt, fish, and grow crops.

  • John Winthrop was the governor of the Puritan settlements.

  • The Colony of Connecticut adopted a plan of government called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.

  • It was the first written constitution in America.

  • Chapter 3, Section 3

  • New Amsterdam was controlled by the Dutch. New Amsterdam was located in the New Netherland colony. New Netherland was surrendered to the English forces and renamed New York.

  • It was a center of shipping to and from the America’s. It was a good seaport.

  • New Amsterdam was later named New York City.

  • In 1691, the English government allowed New York to elect a legislative government.

  • New Jersey attracted people by offering land, freedom of religion, trial by jury, and a representative assembly.

  • Pennsylvania was named after William Penn. He also wrote the first Pennsylvania constitution.

  • He attracted settlers by advertising through Europe in several different languages.

  • In 1701, Penn granted the colonists the right to elect representatives to a legislative assembly.

  • In 1704, three lower counties of Pennsylvania formed their own government and became the colony of Delaware.

    End Chapter 3 Notes

Chapter 4, Section 1

  • Small businesses began popping up around New England colonies.

  • Large towns attracted furniture makers, blacksmiths, and printers. Women made candles and clothing for their families and to trade.

  • The Triangular Trade Route took items to the west Indies and Africa.

  • The Middle Passage was the worst for slaves because they had horrible conditions and treatment.

  • They produced cash crops.

  • The Southern Colonies of Maryland and Virginia relied on tobacco.

  • South Carolina and Georgia depended on rice.

  • Rice harvesting required so much strenuous work, so they had to have slaves work the crops.

  • Plantations were large farms in the South that were run by slaves.

  • Plantations were located on rivers so crops could be shipped to market by boat.

  • Slavery was the main reason for success in the south.

  • Most slaves lived on plantations.

  • Slaves were treated cruelly on plantations.

Chapter 4, Section 2

  • The English Bill of Rights was created in 1689. It gave certain basic rights to all citizens.

  • It became part of the English law that American colonists shared.

  • It inspired the creation of the American Bill of Rights.

  • Navigation Act was passed in the 1650s.

  • It controlled the trade of goods between England and the colonies.

  • This prevented them from sending goods like sugar and tobacco anywhere but to England.

  • Some colonists smuggled and traded illegally. They ignored the laws.

  • Magna Carta = King John was forced to sign in 1215. It established a limited government. The power of the king or government was limited.

  • Charter colonies included: Connecticut and Rhode Island. They were established by settlers who were given rights and privileges.

  • Proprietary colonies were ruled by proprietors, people who were free to rule as they wished.

  • Proprietors were given land by Britain or the king.

  • Proprietary colonies included: Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania

  • Royal Colonies were ruled by the king of Great Britain.

  • Royal colonies included: Georgia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia.

  • In the colonies most women, servants, poor, and African Americans could not vote. Only white, land owning males.

  • The Great Awakening, 1720s through 1740s, was an increase in religious activity. Ministers preached with emotion. It led people to experience God and taught that they were responsible for their own actions. As a result, many new churches were formed.

  • In 1636, the Puritans established Harvard College, which was set up to teach ministers.

  • Enlightenment spread the idea that society could be improved through knowledge, reason, and science.

  • The best known American scientist was Benjamin Franklin. He invented the Franklin stove which was a furnace used to help warm houses.

  • Andrew Hamilton argued that free speech was a basic right of English people.

End Section 2

Chapter 4, Section 3

  • The French and British continued to fight as both countries expanded into each others territory.

  • The Native Americans helped the French. The French did not try to take away their land.

  • The Iroquois Confederacy was the most powerful.

  • The British and French continued to fight. There was a meeting in Albany, New York to discuss the threat of war.

  • Benjamin Franklin came up with the Albany Plan of Union.

  • It would have one government for 11 colonies and would unite them.

  • The colonies did not approve the Albany plan because they did not want to loose power of their colony.

  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was the first Constitution of America.

  • It gave them the right to select judges, governors, and representatives to make laws.

End Section 3

Chapter 4, Section 4

  • The French and Indian War was the beginning of the Seven Year War.

  • William Pitt oversaw the war effort from London.

  • After the French and Indian War the British raised taxes to help with debt.

  • The Treaty of Paris marked an end of power in North America for France.

  • To prevent more fighting, Britain called a halt to the settlers westward expansion.

  • Proclamation of 1763 set the Appalachian Mountains as the temporary border for the colonies.

End Chapter 4, Video Follows

Slave Codes

  • Slave codes are the laws passed in the Southern states that controlled and restricted enslaved people.


  • Believed that every individual had an “inner light” that could guide him or her to salvation.

  • Believed each person could experience religious truth directly, which meant that church services and officials were unnecessary.

  • Believed everyone was equal in God’s sight.

  • New York and Pennsylvania relied heavily on cash crops.

Chapter 5 Section 1

  • The Sugar Act in 1764 was to try and stop smuggling. They lowered the tax on molasses so that people would buy instead of smuggle.

  • Molasses is a syrup produced from raw sugar.

  • The Stamp Act placed a tax on all printed goods.

    • Ex: Newspapers, playing cards, etc.

  • Samuel Adams started the Son’s of Liberty. Members would protest the Stamp Act.

  • Townshend Act taxed imported goods only. Taxes were paid at the port upon entry. It taxed basic items that they were not able to produce.

Chapter 5, Section 2

  • The redcoats and Bostonians began fighting and the redcoats killed 5 people.

  • The Boston Massacre was on March 5, 1770.

  • Crispus Attucks was the African American/dockworker that was killed in the Boston Massacre.

  • Colonial leaders used news of the Boston Massacre as propaganda against the British.

  • In 1772, Samuel Adams revived the committee of correspondence.

  • This was an organization that used meetings and letters to spread ideas to colonies.

  • Tea Act of 1773, it allowed tea to be sold to shopkeepers at a low price. They could ship tea without paying most of the taxes.

  • Colonists argued it was an attempt to crush the colonists’ liberty or freedom.

  • The Boston Sons of Liberty dressed as Indians and took 342 chests of tea and threw it overboard into the Boston Harbor. This was known as the Boston Tea Party.

  • King George III and Parliament punished the colonists of Massachusetts. They felt Boston must pay for the tea they ruined.

  • They passed the Coercive Acts which closed the Boston Harbor until they paid for the ruined tea.

  • With the harbors closed they could not get food shipped in.

  • The Coercive Acts were renamed the Intolerable Acts by the colonists.

End Section 2

Chapter 5, Section 3

  • The Continental Congress met in September of 1774.

  • They challenged British rule.

  • The Congress included Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, George Washington, and others.

  • Colonial troops were called minutemen.

  • The British, led by Thomas Gage, were getting ready for war.

  • Paul Revere and William Dawes rode to Lexington to warn that the British were coming.

  • British soldiers are called redcoats.

  • The Battle of Lexington resulted in 8 deaths.

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote the Americans at Lexington and Concord had fired the “shot heard around the world”.

  • The Battle for American Independence from Britain had begun.

  • The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 16, 1775.

  • The British won.

  • Americans withdrew because they ran out of gunpowder.

  • Loyalists wanted to remain with Britain.

  • Patriots wanted to fight the British.

End Section 3

Chapter 5 Section 4

  • No notes?

  • Video over Thomas Paine, Declaration of Independence, and the Preamble.

Chapter 6, Sections 1 & 2

  • The colonies declared independence from England in July 1776.

  • America’s greatest advantage in the war was their leader, George Washington.

  • Women:

    • Margaret Corbin= fought next to husband.

    • Mary Ludwig= Molly the Pitcher (carried water to soldiers).

    • Deborah Sampson= dressed as boy and enlisted to fight.

  • Nathan Hale was a teacher that spied on British troops.

  • He was caught and hanged on September 22, 1776.

  • Victory of Saratoga in 1777 showed British that the Americans might win this war.

  • At Valley Forge there was not enough food or clothing for the winter.

  • Judith Murray argued that women’s minds were as good as a man’s.

  • Abigail Adams also fought for women’s rights.

  • African Americans who fought in the American Revolution got freedom.

End Sections 1 & 2

Chapter 6 Sections 3 & 4

  • Battle of Yorktown was won by the Americans. It was the last battle of the war.

  • It was too costly for the British to continue fighting.

  • Treaty of Paris took effect on September 3, 1783. This showed that America was an independent nation.

  • December 4, 1783, George Washington gave up his command and returned home.

End Section 3 & 4

Chapter 7 Section 1

  • Some white men age 21 and older had the right to vote. Some states allowed free African Americans to vote.

  • The states wanted to form a republic government. This is when citizens are elected and citizens rule.

  • The Articles of Confederation was the first constitution for the new states.

  • The government consisted of a Congress and Representatives from each state.

  • The Congress could conduct foreign affairs, maintain armed forces, borrow money, and issue money.

  • The Congress could not regulate trade, force citizens to join the army, or impose taxes.

  • All states had to approve the Articles and amendments.

  • Northwest Territory included anything north of Ohio River and east of Mississippi River.

  • After they reached 60,000 population they could petition for statehood. They would enter with the same rights as the other 13 states.

  • George Washington stated that the Articles were too weak and must be made stronger.

End Section 1

Chapter 7 Section 2

  • Farmers could not pay their request for money because they were unable to sell their goods.

  • Daniel Shays led the Shays’ Rebellion in which the farmers were fighting to keep judges from taking farm land.

  • Slavery was legal in all Northern states.

  • Southern plantation owners feared their economy could not survive without slaves.

  • James Madison is often called the Father of the Constitution because he was the author of the basic plan of government.

  • The Convention chose George Washington to preside over the meetings.

  • Edmund Randolph introduced the Virginia Plan. It called for 2 house legislature. Gave states delegates based on population size.

  • New Jersey Plan gave one vote per state regardless of population size.

  • The Great Compromise was created by Roger Sherman.

  • 3/5 Compromise was to count each slave as 3/5 of a free person for taxes and representation.

    • 5 slaves = 3 free people.

  • George Mason proposed a Bill of Rights to be included in the Constitution.

    • It was defeated.

    • It listed government powers and protection of individual rights.

  • The committees met in Philadelphia on Sept. 17, 1787, to sign the Constitution.

  • 9 states must sign it in order for it to be approved.

End Section 2

Chapter 7 Section 3

  • Magna Carta placed limits on the power of the monarch.

  • Enlightenment was a movement of the 1700s that promoted knowledge, reason, and science as a means to improve society.

  • John Locke believed all people had natural rights. Rights of life, liberty, and property.

  • The constitution was a contract between the people and their government.

  • The Spirit of Laws said powers should be separated and balanced against each other.

  • Framers of the Constitution did divide the powers of government.

  • Constitution powers:

    • Government: regulate trade, control army, control money, and declare war

    • State: enforce and pass laws, regulate trade, establish local government.

  • Government has 3 braches:

  • Legislative Brach: establishes Congress, law making branch (2 senators for each state), makes all laws.

  • Executive Branch: headed by the President, conducts foreign relations. President and Vice President serve 4 year terms.

  • Judicial Branch: court system of the United States, power resides in “one supreme Court”, Supreme Court and federal courts hear cases involving the Constitution, laws passed by Congress, and disputes between states.

  • Checks and balances:

    • 3 braches have roles that check or limit the others.

    • Therefore, no single branch can dominate the government.

  • Federalist Papers were essays explaining and defending the Constitution. They were published as a book.

  • Anti-Federalist Papers argued that the Constitution would take away the liberties Americans fought to win from Great Britain.

  • Delaware was the first state to approve the Constitution.

Civics in Action section.

  • The Preamble is the introduction to the Constitution.

  • Popular Sovereignty reinforces “authority of the people”. We allow the people to decide.

  • The Bill of Rights is the FIRST 10 amendments.

  • Marbury V Madison= Judicial review.

  • Impeach is to charge a public official with misconduct in office.

  • Bill becomes a law

    1. Bill introduced in House and Senate.

    2. Bill referred to House and Senate committee for changes.

    3. House and Senate debates and passes its form of a bill.

    4. House and Senate reach compromise.

    5. President signs bill into law or House and Senate approve compromise.

  • Due Process = Government must treat all people according to the laws of the Constitution.

  • Draft = Males must register at the age of 18 with the government in case they are needed for military service.

Chapter 8 Section 1

  • April 30, 1789, George Washington became the first President (Mr. President) and John Adams was the first VP.

  • Thomas Jefferson – Secretary of State (relations with other nations)

  • Alexander Hamilton – Secretary of the Treasury (money issues)

  • Henry Knox = Secretary of War (nation’s defense)

  • Edmund Randolph = Attorney General

  • These men made up the first cabinet or Congress.

  • December 1791, the first 10 amendments, The Bill of Rights, was added to the Constitution. It protected individual rights.

  • Most Americans earned a living by farming.

  • Hamilton wanted to put a tax/tariff on imports to encourage people to buy American supplies.

End Section 1

Chapter 8 Section 2

  • Whiskey Rebellion is when farmers had to pay a special tax on whiskey. The farmers attacked because they did not have money for the new tax.

  • The struggle in the west was with the Indians. We wanted the Indians out. We wanted to sign treaties with them.

  • Chief Turtle was the chief of the Miami people. A group of Indians mainly from Indiana.

Treaty of Greenville, the Native Americans agreed to surrender most of the land in present day Ohio.

Neutrality means you do not take sides in a conflict.

Americans felt Jay’s Treaty was dishonorable despite the gains it made.

  • Washington’s Farewell Address was published in a Philadelphia newspaper.

  • It attacked evils of political parties and foreign affairs.

  • Washington’s final words influenced the nations foreign policy for over 100 years.

End Section 2 Video Follows

Chapter 8 Section 3

Partisan is favoring one side of an issue.

  • Two main political parties are the: (Washington warned parties would divide the nation).

    • Federalist: supported Washington, stood for a strong federal government. Believed in a national bank.

    • Democratic-Republican: limit power on government, feared that the strong federal government would endanger people’s liberties. Believed in state banks and rule by the people.

  • To prepare for the election, the two parties held meetings called caucuses.

  • John Adams and Thomas Jefferson ran for the next Presidency. Adams won and Jefferson became Vice President.

  • XYZ Affair was a crisis with France. They wanted a loan from the United States and sent three men to bargain for a loan. These men were known as X, Y, and Z.

  • Sedition Acts made it illegal to criticize the government and allowed the president to deport aliens.

  • Matthew Lyon was arrested for fighting in Congress.

  • Immigrants from Africa could not even apply for citizenship.

  • The Naturalization Act made it more difficult for white aliens to become citizens. This act increased the amount of time for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 years to 14 years.

  • The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions claimed the Sedition Acts violated the Constitution.

Chapter 9, Section 1

  • The Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution says electors must vote for the President and Vice President on separate ballots.

  • Laissez-faire = Means you should let people do as they choose.

  • Customs duties = taxes on foreign imported goods.

  • Federalists passed the Judiciary Act of 1801. This act set up courts for the United States with 16 judges.

  • Three principals of judicial review:

  • 1. Constitution is the supreme law of the land.

  • 2. When there is a conflict, the Constitution must be followed.

  • 3. The Judicial Branch has the duty to uphold the Constitution.

  • Marshall set out these principals in order to broaden the Supreme court powers.

    End of section 1

Section 2

  • Louisiana Territory = doubled the size of the United States, the U.S. purchased it from France for $15 million dollars, and it included the area west of the Mississippi River. It was purchased in 1803.

  • Jefferson wanted to know more about the land purchased west of the Mississippi. He sent Lewis and Clark on an expedition.

  • An African American named York also made the trip with Lewis and Clark.

Section 3

  • A nation not involved in a conflict had neutral rights. They had rights to sail the seas and not take sides.

  • An embargo prohibits trade with another country.

  • The Embargo Act banned imports from and exports to all foreign countries.

  • The War Hawks pressured the president to declare war on Britain. They did not like Britain’s actions against the Americans and they wanted to expand the nation’s power.

  • Madison called for war against Britain in the spring of 1812.

    End of section 3

Section 4

  • Oliver Hazard Perry was commander of the Lake Erie navel forces. He destroyed the British naval forces there.

  • Francis Scott Key wrote a poem called “The Star-Spangled Banner” after watching the bombs burst over Fort McHenry. By the dawn’s early light he could still see the American flag flying.

  • In 1931, Congress named the Star-Spangled Banner the National Anthem.

  • The Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812.

  • In the Battle of New Orleans, the Americans defeated the British army. Andrew Jackson led the Americans to victory.

Chapter 10 Section 1

  • Americans did not have enough people to work so they started making tools that made work easier.

  • The Industrial Revolution started in Britain.

  • People started leaving their farm life and moving to the city for jobs.

  • Free enterprise means they are free to buy, sell, and produce whatever they want. This provides competition and profit.

  • Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. It removed seeds from the cotton.

  • Francis Cabot Lowell opened the first mill or factory system. This increased the supply.

  • Eli Whitney started using interchangeable parts, which reduced the price of goods.

  • People invested in industries because of low taxes, competition, and few government rules.

  • Most industries were close to rivers and streams so they could use the waterpower.

End Section 1

Chapter 10 Section 2 & 3

  • Moving west was very hard and included many groups.

    • In 1790, the population was 4 million people.

    • 30 years later it was 10 million people.

  • Manifest Destiny means we are destined to expand west to the Pacific Ocean.

  • Steamboat made shipping faster and easier.

  • The Era of Good Feeling increased nationalism and patriotism in the US. Everyone was happy with their leader Monroe.

  • The South was strongly for slavery and the North was not.

  • The South wanted Missouri to be admitted to the Union as a slave state. Missouri was in the north, so the North disagreed.

  • Maine also applied for statehood at this time.

  • The Missouri Compromise solved the discussion.

  • The Congress admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state.

  • Henry Clay was a leader that tried to resolve disputes through compromise.

  • After the war of 1812, Monroe and Adams tried to resolve disputes with Great Britain and Spain.

  • Monroe Doctrine, the military did not enforce. It was too important in American foreign policy.

End of Chapter 10

Chapter 11

  • Andrew Jackson’s nickname was “Old Hickory”. His troops believed he was as tough as a hickory stick.

  • Jackson took care of the common man and wanted equal rights for everyone.

  • Jackson put a tariff which included a huge tax on European goods. Citizens were forced to buy American goods because they were so much cheaper.

  • The South felt this tax was hateful. It would cause American made goods to be more expensive.

  • Nullification Act was South Carolina state legislature passing this act which said they would not pay the illegal tariff of 1828 and 1832.

  • Indian Removal Act offered money to the Native Americans if they would move west.

  • Worcester v. Georgia ruled that Georgia had no right to interfere with the Cherokee Indians.

  • Trail of Tears was a journey the Cherokees took to the west. They were forced from their home and thousands died.

  • Osceola was the chief of the Seminole tribe.

  • They resisted to move and fought the US. Many Americans died.

  • We pushed most of our Indians to Oklahoma.

End Section 2 & 3

Chapter 12 Section 2

  • In 1803, the US bought the Louisiana Territory from France. Americans felt the land in present day Texas was part of the purchase.

  • Santa Anna led the fight at the Alamo and William B. Travis led the Texans in the Battle of the Alamo.

  • March 2, 1836, American settlers and Tejanos declared independence from Mexico.

  • The Republic of Texas was established.

  • In September of 1836, Sam Houston was elected president of Texas.

  • On December 29, 1845, Texas became a state of the US. The President was James Polk.

End Section 2

Chapter 12 Section 3

  • The US offered Mexico 30 million for California and New Mexico. We also said we would pay off their debt. Mexico refused the offer.

  • Polk wanted to go to war, but he wanted Mexico to take the first shot.

  • The border of Texas was the Rio Grande. Mexico believed it was the Nueces River.

  • President Polk had a 3 part plan for the war with Mexico: 1.Make the border of Texas secure. 2. Seize New Mexico and California. 3. Seize Mexico City (Capital of Mexico).

  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Mexico gave up all claims to Texas, agreed to Rio Grande as the border, and sold the US California and New Mexico for 15 million.

  • The US paid 10 million for the Gadsden Purchase which made the US the size it is today.

    End Section 3

  • Chapter 12, Section 4

  • Those who went to California in 1849 in search of gold were called forty-niners.

  • Mormons were from the Utah area. They went to Utah to fulfill their vision of the godly life.

Chapter 13 Section 2

  • Factories:

    • Men, women, and children worked in them.

    • They worked long hours.

    • Lots of accidents (Examples: no protective shields of leather belts). Many lost fingers and there were a lot of broken bones.

    • No laws to protect workers.

  • Sarah Bagley started a petition for a 10-hour work day. It was thrown out because only women signed it.

  • Immigrants brought their language, religion, and customs with them.

  • African Americans:

    • First newspaper was Freedom’s Journal.

    • Macon Allen was the first to practice law.

    • Most were poor.

    • Henry Boyd owned a furniture company.

End Section 2

Chapter 13 Section 3

  • Slavery in the north was gone, but still thriving in the South with cotton.

  • Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. They had to have more workers and farmers wanted to produce more cotton. They relied on slaves.

  • South had little industry. Agriculture was making a lot of money.

  • North had industries, few slaves, and many railroads.

  • South had agriculture, lots of slaves, and few railroads.

End Section 3

Chapter 13 Section 4

  • Slavery:

    • Worked hard.

    • Made no money.

    • No freedom.

    • Fear of being sold (separated from family members).

    • No laws to protect them.

  • Harriet Tubman fled to the north and gained freedom. She was known as Moses to the blacks. She was one of the conductors of the Underground Railroad. South was offering huge rewards to return her.

  • Underground Railroad was owned by freed blacks and whites who opposed slavery. Gave help to runaway slaves. “Safe Houses”.

  • Frederick Douglass fled to the north and gained freedom.

End Section 4

Chapter 14 Section 1

  • Temperance means drinking little or no alcohol.

  • Reformers blamed alcohol for poverty, crime, insanity, and break up of families.

  • Horace Mann was the leader for educational reform, lawyer, changed school year to six months, changed curriculum, paid teachers more, and trained teachers.

  • 1850s, most states accepted three basic principles for education.

    • Schools should be free and supported by taxes.

    • Teachers should be trained.

    • Children have to go.

  • Mainly only men were allowed to go to college. In 1833 the College of Ohio accepted women and blacks.

  • Thomas Gallaudet opened the Hartford school to teach the deaf.

  • Dorothea Dix fought for the rights of prisoners and mentally ill.

Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the book, “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”. In it she focused on slavery.

  • End Section 1

Chapter 14 Section 2

  • American Colonization Society bought slaves and sent them to start new lives. They did not keep them as slaves.

  • William Lloyd Garrison founded the newspaper, “The Liberator” and worked to abolish slavery. He started the abolitionist movement.

  • Sarah and Angelina Grimke were from the south and had lived with slaves their whole life. They spoke out about the cruelty of slavery.

  • Angelina wrote the book “American Slavery As It Is” and it became on of the most influential abolitionist publications.

  • In 1830, the first convention of free African American leaders was held in Philadelphia. They discussed starting a black college and immigration.

  • Sojourner Truth used to be named Belle. She was a slave that escaped in 1826. She changed her name because she said, “I will now walk in the light of God’s truth”. She fought for women’s rights.

  • The north was against slavery, but many of them would not fight for blacks’ freedom. They felt it would cause a war between the North and the South.

Extra Facts

  • Thomas Jefferson’s greatest contribution as president was the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France.

  • Northwest Ordinance was established in 1787. It was to create new states from western territories.

  • New states admitted to the Union were equal to existing states.

  • Congress elected judges and governors.

  • When they got 5000 free males they could send one to Congress.

  • When they got 60,000 free people they could write a constitution.

  • They would be admitted as a state.

  • Battle of Saratoga in the American Revolution convinced France to support American Independence. They formed an alliance with the US government.

  • Worcester V Georgia Supreme Court case, ruled in favor of the Cherokee nation. President Jackson refused to enforce the ruling and it led to the Trail of Tears.

  • Era of Good Feelings increased nationalism and patriotism in the US. It happened after the war of 1812.

  • The Nullification Crisis concerned South Carolina’s feelings with federal policy on taxes and tariffs.

  • Samuel Morse invented the Morse code and telegraph.

End Section 2

  • Tell me about the following items: (Section 1 notes)

    • Missouri Compromise

    • Wilmot Proviso

    • Free-Soil Party

    • Compromise of 1850 (5 main points)

Chapter 15, Section 1

  • Missouri Compromise was the balancing of slave and free states. Missouri was slave and Maine was free.

  • Wilmot Proviso said slavery should not be allowed in any land that could be taken by Mexico.

  • Free-Soil Party was formed by people who left their party because of the slave issue. Martin Van Buren was elected as their presidential candidate.

  • Compromise of 1850 included Clay’s 5 main points

    • California admitted as a free state.

    • New Mexico have no restrictions on slaves.

    • Mexico-Texas border dispute

    • Slave trade would be abolished.

    • Stronger fugitive slave laws.

    • This was to be the final settlement between the North and the South.

Chapter 15 Section 2

  • Fugitive Slave Act required all citizens to catch runaways. If they took care of the fugitives they could get fined or time in prison.

  • Underground Railroad helped runaways make the way to freedom.

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act said Kansas and Nebraska would be territory opened to slaveholding.

  • John Brown thought God wanted him to end slavery. He killed five supporters of slavery at Pottawatomie Creek.

End Section 2

Chapter 15 Section 3

  • Mason Dixon line is the boundary line between free states and slave states.

  • Democrats, and Free Soilers joined together and formed the Republican party.

  • Know Nothing Party is the American Party. This group contained Native people.

  • Dred Scott Decision :

    • The slave Dred Scott was owned by a doctor. The doctor and slave once lived in a free state. Once the doctor died, Dred felt like he should be free since he once lived in a free state. His case made it to the Supreme Court.

  • Roger Taney = Chief Justice of Dred Scott case, and he ruled on the case.

  • 1) 5th amendment prohibits Congress from taking away property. Slaves were considered property.

  • 2) Congress had no power to prohibit slavery.

  • 3) Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because the constitution protected slavery.

  • Stephen Douglas (Democrat) and Abraham Lincoln (Republican) were in a race for the Senate. Lincoln said slavery should not be allowed to spread. Lincoln lost this election.

  • John Brown went to Harper’s Ferry, Virginia to raid a storage place for ammunition. He was caught and hanged. This was a major cause of the Civil War.

Chapter 15 Section 4

  • Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln as their presidential candidate. Lincoln said slavery should be left alone where it already exists, but excluded from new territories.

  • 1860 election was won by Lincoln. He won every northern state.

  • South felt like Lincoln would end slavery. In 1860, South Carolina seceded from the Union.

  • 1861, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Florida seceded from the Union.

  • These states called themselves the Confederate States. They chose Jefferson Davis as their president.

  • Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas also joined the Confederacy.

  • Fort Sumter was the first battle of the Civil War. Confederate groups opened fire on April 12, 1861. In this battle there was no loss of lives. The Union had to surrender due to lack of supplies.

End Section 4

Chapter 16

  • President during the Civil War?

  • Confederacy were states in the?

  • Union were states in the?

  • First Battle of the Civil War?

  • How long did the Civil War last?

  • Who surrendered first?

Chapter 16 Section 2

  • Confederates: Half were black, 9000 miles of railroad, gray uniforms, more military experience.

  • Union: no blacks, 23,000 miles of railroad, blue uniforms, less military experience.

  • Battle of Bull Run: Confederacy won, was the first battle in which people died, of the Civil War.

  • Lincoln wanted volunteers to serve a three year term.

  • They fear getting sick more than getting shot.

  • The North’s primary goal is to take control of the Mississippi River. This would split the Confederates.

  • The Battle of New Orleans was the battle won by the north. It gave the north almost full control of the Mississippi River.

  • Battle of Antietam was the single bloodiest day of the Civil War. 6000 dead and 17,000 were wounded.

  • North’s new aim was to take action against slavery.

End Section 2

Chapter 16 Section 3

  • Lincoln felt slavery was wrong, but feared to move against it because of the border states. (Thought the border states would succeed the Union.

  • Lincoln felt the slave issue was helping the South with the war.

  • Summer 1862, Lincoln decided to emancipate or free all slaves in the South.

  • 13th amendment truly freed all slaves.

  • The Confederacy offered slaves freedom after the war if they would fight. Most slaves had already escaped to the north.

  • Emancipation did not end slavery. The rebellion states did not act on the order. It did show the world that the Civil War was not being fought to end slavery. Lincoln wanted to save the Union.

End Section 3

Chapter 16 Section 4

  • The rebels suffered from lack of food and supplies during the Civil War.

  • Women during the war were teachers, office workers, made ammunition, took food and medicine to troops, raised money for food, spies (learned of plans and told the other side) and also served as nurses.

  • April 1862, they passed a draft. Men between 18 and 35 had to serve in the army for three years. (Confederacy).

  • The economy of the North was much stronger than the South. The South had lack of factories and their farmland and railroads were torn up by the war.

End Section 4

Chapter 16 Section 5

  • Battle of Gettysburg was one of the last battles of the Civil War.

  • The Union won this battle.

  • Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address stated soldiers had lost their lives to ensure government for the people, of the people, and by the people. Lincoln was talking about Democracy.

  • End of the Civil War: Lee surrendered to Grant with the terms that the Confederacy troops must lay down their arms, and then they were free to go home

  • More than 600,000 troops died during the Civil War. There has been no other war fought on American soil since the Civil War.

End Section 5

Chapter 17 Section 2

  • Civil Rights Act of 1866 gave full citizenship to African Americans.

  • June 1866: 14th amendment was passed. Gave all people born in the US citizenship.

  • February 1869: 15th amendment gave all male citizens the right to vote.

End Section 2

Chapter 17 Section 3

  • Most blacks were Republicans.

  • Between 1869 and 1880, 16 blacks served in the House of Representatives and 2 in the Senate.

  • In 1866, the Ku Klux Klan was formed. They hurt and killed blacks and whites that supported Reconstruction.

  • In Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address, he stated the South should get fair treatment after the war.

  • Battle of Vicksburg was important because it gave the Union army control of the Mississippi River.

  • Monroe Doctrine: US would not allow further European colonization in the west. US will remain neutral in European wars.

  • The Mormons leader took them to Salt Lake City. This is where the main Mormon temple was built.

  • Civil War: Union Commander was Grant. Confederate Commander was Lee. President of US was Lincoln.

Personal Notes

  • TAKS

  • Context Clues

  • Cross out wrong answers

  • Read questions twice.

  • Read all answer choices twice.

  • In pictures also look at works.

  • Look at map also look at the key.

  • Always read the title of a map.

  • If the question takes too much time or if you are unsure, skip it and come back to it later.

  • When dealing with maps, charts, and graphs, if you can not prove it, it is wrong.

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