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Key studies. Biological. Write down five studies. Biological. Name the case study with the guy with a spike in his head Why is it important?. Biological. Name the case study with the guy with a spike in his head Why is it important? Phineas Gage. Biological.

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Key studies

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Key studies


Biological

  • Write down five studies


Biological

  • Name the case study with the guy with a spike in his head

  • Why is it important?


Biological

  • Name the case study with the guy with a spike in his head

  • Why is it important?

  • Phineas Gage


Biological

  • Name the experiment that showed us pretty conclusively about lateralization?


Biological

  • Name the experiment that showed us pretty conclusively about lateralization?

    • Sperry – 1968 – hemisphere deconnection and unity in conscious awareness – correlational study;


Biological

  • Name the study on smiles and attractiveness?


Biological

  • Name the study on smiles and attractiveness?

  • Eckman-people can naturally recognize a duschene smile


Smile

  • Alos: Dacher Keltner and LeeAnne Harker of the University of California at Berkley studied 141 high school senior-class photos from the 1960 yearbook of Mills College.


Biological

  • Name the study on gender development?


Biological

  • Name the study on gender development?

  • John Money--Case study--David Reimer the boy who was raised a girl.

  • Challenged by Milton Diamond


Biological

  • Name the study on gender differences in mate selection


David Buss: The love Doctor

  • 1989 and 1990

  • Large scale 10,047, cross culural (37)

  • Average 272 per culture

  • Looked at 32 qualities for long term mate


Biological

  • Describe different theories on aggression


Biological

  • Describe different theories on aggression

  • Lorenz' Hydraulic Model of motivation


Lorenz' Hydraulic Model of motivation

Hydraulic Theory predicts:

  • Aggression is inevitable - the accumulating energy must find an outlet

  • Humans & animals will actively 'look for fights'.

  • After an attack an animal / human will become less aggressive.

  • Animals reared in isolation will show aggressive behaviour.


Biological

  • Describe different theories on aggression

  • Lorenz' Hydraulic Model of motivation

  • Jonathan Toot--gender. Males: significantly lower levels of dopamine and serotonin in areas of the amygdala


Toot

  • "The data show that males are involved in more fights than females," they say, "suggesting increased aggression is influenced by a Y-chromosomal effect that decreases amygdala serotonin."


57 men and

59 women

Ruben Gur and colleagues performed MRI

  • The researchers measured

  • the volume of the amygdala,

  • hippocampus, and

  • other limbic areas associated with emotional arousal,

  • as compared to the volume of orbital frontal brain regions that exert control over emotional responses


57 men and

59 women

Ruben Gur and colleagues performed MRI

  • Results:

  • Same for:

  • the volume of the amygdala,

  • hippocampus, and

  • other limbic areas associated with emotional arousal,

  • But women had significantly larger orbital frontal cortex volume than men.


Ruben Gur and colleagues performed MRI

  • Conclusions:

  • "Because men and women differ in the way they process the emotions associated with perception, experience, expression, and most particularly in aggression," the researchers say, "our belief is that the proportional difference in size in the region of the brain that governs behavior, compared to the region related to impulsiveness, may be a major factor in determining what is often considered 'gender-related' behavior."


Learning perspective

  • Name key study on aggression


Learning perspective

  • Name key study on aggression

  • Bandura--Describe it


Learning perspective

  • Name researchers we associate with Classical conditioning


Learning perspective

  • Name researchers we associate with Classical conditioning

  • Pavlov

  • Watson

  • Compare the two

  • Watson & Rayner – 1920 – the case of Little Albert – lab experiment of one participant;


Cognitive perspective

  • Name key researcher on false memory


Cognitive perspective

  • Name key researcher on false memory

    • Loftus – 1974 – reconstruction of automobile destruction - eyewitness memory – lab experiment;


Cognitive perspective

  • Name key researchers on memory


Cognitive perspective

  • Name key researchers on memory

    • 1950s, 1960s, 1970s – studies on sensory memory, STM, LTM (Sperling, Peterson & Peterson, Miller, Conrad, Ebbinghaus, Baddeley) – lab experiments;


Cognitive perspective

  • Describe a theory of memory


Cognitive perspective

  • Describe a theory of memory

  • Multistore model

  • Theory by Atkins and Shiffrin (1968)

  • Based upon the theoretical existence of a sensory, short term, and long term memory processes.

  • They believed that information flows

    1) briefly through sensory, then into

    2) short term, and/or

    3) long term memory structures.


Multi store model

  • If STM memories are not rehearsed, they are lost. In other words, whether information is stored in STM or LTM depends on how much it is processed by the mind.

  • Each structure has different durations and capacities

  • Duration and capacity is fixed in each structure: Once the memory capacity or specific duration of time is reached, memory is lost.


Multi store model

Strengths

  • Still widely used by psychologists

  • Provides support for Serial Position Effect and Anterograde Amnesia

    Weaknesses

  • Original theory was too simplisitc. Now thought to be different types of both STM and LTM.

  • Ignores the importance of the type of information that is brought in, and the effort or strategy subjects use when learning.


Questions

  • To what extent can the behavioral perspective be regarded as limited in its explanation of human behavior?


Questions

  • To what extent can the behavioral perspective be regarded as limited in its explanation of human behavior?

  • to what extent? Asks candidates to evaluate the success or otherwise of one argument or concept over another. Candidates should present a conclusion, supported by arguments.


Question

  • a) Outline what is meant by the deterministic approach? (2 mark)

  • B) Explain how one theory or empirical study from the learning perspective demonstrates a deterministic approach. (6 marks)


Question

  • a) Outline what is meant by the deterministic approach? (2 mark)

  • outline Asks candidates to write a brief summary of the major aspects of the issue, principle, approach or argument stated in the question.


Question

B) Explain how one theory or empirical study from the learning perspective demonstrates a deterministic approach. (6 marks)

explain Asks candidates to describe clearly, make intelligible and give reasons for a concept, process, relationship or development.


Question

  • (a) Describe one biological explanation of human behaviour, making reference to one empirical study. [4 marks]

  • b) Describe one strength and one limitation of this explanation of human behaviour. [4 marks]


Question

  • (a) Describe one biological explanation of human behaviour, making reference to one empirical study. [4 marks]

  • describe Asks candidates to give a portrayal of a given situation. It is a neutral request to present a detailed picture of a given situation, event, pattern, process or outcome, although it may be followed by a further opportunity for discussion and analysis.


Question

b) Describe one strength and one limitation of this explanation of human behaviour. [4 marks]


Levels of processing

  • Theory by Craik and Lockhart (1972)

  • Accepts the existence of STM and LTM

  • However, suggests that it is what the person does with information when it is received (how much attention is paid to it or how deeply it is considered, that determines how long the memory lasts.

  • Info is more readily transferred to LTM with more “depth of processing”


Levels of processing

What are the 3 Levels of Processing?

1. Structural Level – paying attention to what the

words look like. (superficial)

  • Phonetic Level – processing the sound of the

    words. (deeper processing)

  • Semantic Level - considering the meaning of

    words (the deepest processing).


Levels of processing

Strengths

  • Good contribution to understanding the processes that take place at the time of learning

  • Provides and alternative explanation of anterograde Amnesia (shallow processing)

  • Recognizes a wide variety of memories as a result of a wide variety of ways information is dealt with.

    Weaknesses

  • Not meant to fully explain memory, but to aid in research.

  • Circular definition: well remembered material which has been deeply processed and deeply processed material is that which is well remembered.

  • Many problems with defining deep processing and why it is effective

  • It describes rather than explains.


Learning perspective

  • Name researchers we associate with operant conditioning

  • Skinner


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