Drawing Up Plans for Tennessee Secondary RTI2. Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Professor and Director, School Psychology Program National Louis University, Skokie, IL [email protected] http://markshinn .org. Tennessee Department of Education August 14th, 2013. Thought for Today.
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The difficulty lies, not in the new ideas, but in escaping from the old ones, which ramify, for those brought up as most of us have been, into every corner of our minds.
JohnMaynard Keynes(1883 - 1946), The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (13 December 1935)
Staff Development and Consultant to School Districts and SDEs in 42 States Since 1985
Recipient of APA, Division 16 (School Psychology) Distinguished Career Service Award
Professor of School Psychology and Special Education, National-Louis University and Formerly, University of Oregon
IASPIRE Northern Region
Pour! Services at SecondaryLots to Talk About (and Do)
High School Example Services at Secondary
Is This a Student with a Disability?
New Thinking: Mark Services at Secondary’s Secondary Priorities
One of the greatest barriers to student growth and achievement in secondary schools (especially high schools) is the issue of fragmentation...
students have multiple teachers throughout each day, and these teachers rarely, if ever, coordinate what or how they teach students...
secondary students who struggle with learning do not get the necessary reinforcement of critical skills, strategies, and subject-area information.
Hence, the often disjointed, uncoordinated educational programs that secondary students experience rarely lead to the type of instructional synergy that is required for students to make dramatic achievement gains.
Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D.D. (2010). Using a tiered intervention model in secondary schools to improve academic outcomes in subject-area courses. In Shinn, M. R. & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for Achievement and Behavior in a 3-tier model including RTI. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
“Close” Reading of Narrative and InformationalText
Expansion and Use of Academic English
Effective Study and Organizational Skills, Including Note Taking
Effective Writing with Use of Evidence
MathematicsUnderstanding, Especially with Respect to Conceptual Understanding, Procedural Skill, and Application
High School Strategies
What Intervention Would This Student Receive Now?
Where to Begin? Strategies
Ensure “Big Ideas” Are Understood
(6) SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES-
(A) IN GENERAL- Notwithstanding section 607(b), when determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in section 602, the local educational agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether the child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, reading comprehension, mathematical calculation, or mathematical reasoning.
(B) ADDITIONAL AUTHORITY- In determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process which determines if a child responds to scientific, research-based interventionas a part of the evaluation procedures in paragraphs (2) and (3).
We’re Doing RTI “Because It is the LAW”
Fullan, M. (2008). Strategies The six secrets of change: What the best leaders do to help their organizations survive and thrive. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass.
Fullan, M. (2010). Motion leadership: The SKINNY on becoming change savvy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Fullan, M. (2010a). All systems go: The change imperative for whole system reform. Thousand Oaks, CA: Josey-Bass.What Would Change Experts Say?
Being Ready for College
Ready for Employment
is a Civil Rights Issue
Fullan, M. (2008). The six secrets of change: What the best leaders do to help their organizations survive and thrive. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass.
Reading is Essential to BOTH and Must Be Treated as the New Civil Right!
Hunter, P.C. (2012). It's not complicated! What I know for sure about helping our students of color become successful readers. New York, NY: Scholastic.
Students Get the Services They Need...
As Soon As They Need Them!
Builds Commitment--Some Things You Just Don’t “VOTE” On!
Creates a Visible Plan and Timeframe
Gives Permission and Guide the Abandonment Process
Allocates Resources, including Shifting Personnel
Coordinates Staff Development Aligned to the Visible Plan
Adjusts the Master Schedule
Ensuresthe Work Gets Done (e.g., a Leadership Team Meets at Least Monthly)
Content Area Courses Strategies
In Special Education
Student Doing Poorly in Social Studies
Student Receives Accommodations Like Extended Time, Modified Grades, or “Alternative” Social Studies with Lower Content and Reduced ExpectationsThe Old System
§300.309 Determining the existence of a specific learning disability
The school must demonstrate that the student does not achieve adequately for the child’s age or to meet state-approved standardsin one or more of the following areas when provided with learning experiences and instruction appropriate for the student.
•Basic reading skill;
•Reading fluency skills;
•Mathematics problem solving.
An LEA must administer a nationally normed, skills-based universal screener. A universal screener isa brief screening assessment of academic skills (i.e. basic reading skills, reading fluency, reading comprehension, math calculation, math problem solving, written expression) administered to ALL students to determine whether students demonstrate the skills necessary to achieve grade-level standards. p. 15
In grades K-8, it is recommended that the universal screener be administered three times a year: at the beginning, middle, and end of the school year.
In grades 9-12, there are multiple sources of data, such as: EXPLORE, PLAN and ACT; Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) which includes Writing (TCAP-WA), End of Course (EOC), 3-8 Achievement, and, in 2014-2015, Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC); TVAAS and universal screeners. In grades 9-12, a record review may also provide important information such as grades, attendance, and behavioral concerns that may provide early warning signs for intervention. LEAs will establish criteria for identifying students who are at-risk using such data.
Current SLD Identification Practices Strategies
Content Area Courses Strategies
Tier 3 or Special Education
In General Education
Content Area Support
Intensive Basic Skills Intervention
Student Doing Poorly in Social StudiesThe “New” Model
Severe Basic Skill Discrepancy
Low Basic Skills
If a Student Has a Severe Basic Skill Discrepancy (e.g., Reading),Special Education Programs Will Provide Intensive, Teacher-Directed Reading Instruction as Early and Powerfully as Possible--TREATMENT
If a Student Has BASIC Level Skills, (e.g., End-of-Grade 7 or the MINIMUM LEVEL OF BASIC SKILL), Special Education Will PROVIDE SUPPORT (e.g., Through SIM and Effective Behavior Support)
Student Performance Significantly Discrepant from End-of-Grade 7 StandardSevere Basic Skill (Performance) Discrepancy?
Actual ROI NOW Reducing the Gap Standard!
Expected ROI to Significantly Reduce the GapSevere Progress Discrepancy?
Students May Be Eligible for Special Education under the Category of SLD Grades 9-12 IF:
Powerful, Proven Basic Skill Interventions and Learning Strategies
Quality IEP Goals and Frequent, Standardized Progress Monitoring
Pressure from parents, administrators, general educators, and students to provide homework assistance and review or re-teach content-area subject matter..
The “tutoring trap,”which is a costly error implemented at the expense of teaching students strategies they can use in content classrooms
(Deshler, Ellis, & Lenz, 1996).
for Those Who Need Them
REACH (SRA; CR + Spelling Through Morphographs + Reasoning and Writing)
Corrective Reading (SRA)
Read 180 (if Students Are Not Severely Discrepant in Word Reading)
Don’t Rely Too Heavily on Computer-Based Programs Except to Increase Practice and Reading VolumePlanned and Powerful School Reading and Adolescent Literacy Interventions for Special Education and Tier 3
In 1 Year (Expiration of the IEP), John will
Read 150 Words Correctly (WRC) with 3 or fewer errors from a randomly selected Grade 7 Standard Reading Passage
Earn a score of greater than 35 points on a randomly selected Grade 7 Mathematics Applications Probe
Write 60 Total Words (TWW) with 60 Correct Writing Sequences (CWS)given a randomly selected story starter.
Actual ROI NOW Reducing the Gap Students!
Expected ROI to Significantly Reduce the GapQuality IEP Progress Monitoring
Build Your Data System Students!
BASIC SKILLS SCREENING
(UNIVERSAL OR INDIVIDUAL)
FREQUENT PROGRESS MONITORING FOR SOME
SCREENING FOR SOME
< 25th Basic Skills Focus
Consider Tier 2
Tier 3A Significant NORMATIVE Discrepancy Grade 8 Example
*ASSUMPTIONS BASED ON MIDDLE CLASS COMMUNITY
**Tennessee RTI Guidance Suggests Benchmarking Through Grade 8
Predicted to Have Difficulty Navigating Grade 9 Text Basic Skills FocusAn Example of Grade 9 Multiple Gating
Number of Grade 9 Students “Below Basic” Predicted by Lexiles
*ASSUMPTIONS BASED ON MIDDLE CLASS COMMUNITY
Improve the Quality of Core (Tier 1 Language Arts Curriculum and Instruction
Compare and Instruction
Consider a Common, Scientifically Based Core Language Arts Program (At Least Through Grade 9) At Least 80-90 Minutes Per Day (Double Periods or Long Blocks)
AdjustIntensity and Explicitness of Language Arts Components Curriculum By Needs of Students
Ensure You Have Sufficient Time to Impact Tier 1 and Deliver Tiers 2 and 3 WITHIN the Period/Block
Slide from, and based on, original work of Wayne Callender, Partners for Learning,http://partnersforlearning.org
Plenty of Mental Health/Behavior Work for School Psychologists
I Psychologistsllinois PBIS Network
National Technical Assistance Center onPositive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): www.pbis.org
Rob March, Ph.D.
Effective Educational Practices
Randy Sprick, Ph.D.
Safe and Civil Schools: www.safeandcivilschools.com
Build Effective Behavior Support in the School and Classroom
New Thinking: Mark Psychologists’s Secondary Priorities