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Milestones in Neuroscience Research. 1700 B.C. The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus is written by an unknown Egyptian physician. This papyrus contains the first written record about the brain. . Hieroglyphic for the word “brain”. 460-379 B.C.

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1700 b c
1700 B.C.
  • The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus is written by an unknown Egyptian physician. This papyrus contains the first written record about the brain.

Hieroglyphic for the word “brain”

460 379 b c
460-379 B.C.
  • Hippocrates discusses epilepsy as a disturbance of the brain.
  • Hippocrates states that the brain is involved with sensation and is the seat of intelligence.
335 b c
335 B.C.
  • Aristotle thought that, while the heart was the seat of intelligence, the brain was a cooling mechanism for the blood.

“Know something by heart….”

1649 a d
1649 A.D.
  • Rene Descartes describes the pineal gland as control center of body and mind.
1755 a d
1755 A.D.
  • J.B. Le Roy uses electroconvulsive therapy for mental illness.
1791 a d
1791 A.D.
  • Luigi Galvani shows that frog nerves respond to electrical stimulation.
1808 a d
1808 A.D.
  • Franz Joseph Gall publishes work on phrenology.
1849 a d
1849 A.D.
  • Railroad worker Phineas Gage has his brain pierced by an iron rod. His change in behavior following the injury leads to theories about the role of the frontal lobes in cognition and emotion.
1894 a d
1894 A.D.
  • Margaret Floy Washburn is the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology (Cornell University)
    • 16 years after Granville Stanley Hall (Harvard University)
1898 a d
1898 A.D.
  • Bayer Drug Company markets heroin as non-addicting cough medicine.
1921 a d
1921 A.D.
  • Otto Loewi publishes work on “Vagusstoff,” suggesting that neurons release chemicals (neurotransmitters) when stimulated.
    • He would later receive a Nobel Prize in 1936 A.D. for his work on the chemical transmission between nerves.
1929 a d
1929 A.D.
  • Walter B. Cannon coins the term homeostasis.
1936 a d
1936 A.D.
  • Walter Freeman performs first lobotomy (removal of the frontal cortex) in the United States to treat anxiety and other mental disorders.
1949 a d
1949 A.D.
  • John Cade discovers that lithium is an effective treatment for bipolar depression.
1953 a d
1953 A.D.
  • Brenda Milner discusses patient H.M. who suffered from memory deficits (amnesia) after removal of portions of his temporal lobe.
      • Unable to retain information about people, places, or objects for longer than one minute.
1957 a d
1957 A.D.
  • The American Medical Association recognizes alcoholism as a disease.
1960 a d
1960 A.D.

Oleh Hornykiewicz shows that brain dopamine is lower than normal in Parkinson’s disease patients.

1974 a d
1974 A.D.
  • Michael Phelps, Edward Hoffman, and Michel Ter-Pogossian develop the positron emission tomography (PET) scanner.
    • 1990 A.D. Segi Ogawa and colleagues develop functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
2000 a d
2000 A.D.
  • Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, and Eric Kandel share the Nobel Prize for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.
2009 neuroscience
2009 Neuroscience

Just kidding!

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