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Political Demography: Ethnic, National and Religious Dimensions. Believing in Belonging: a qualitative analysis of being Christian for the 2001 census. Abby Day Religious Studies Lancaster University PhD Funded by Arts and Humanities Research Council. Research context.

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Believing in belonging a qualitative analysis of being christian for the 2001 census

Believing in Belonging: a qualitative analysis of being Christian for the 2001 census

Abby Day

Religious Studies

Lancaster University

PhD Funded by Arts and Humanities Research Council


Research context
Research context Christian for the 2001 census

  • UK 2001 Census: 72 % “Christian”

  • Less than 7% attend church regularly


Research problem
Research problem Christian for the 2001 census

  • What do people believe in nowadays and how do we find out?

  • Implication= what do we understand about religious affiliation and its impacts on social, political and policy decisions?


Method
Method Christian for the 2001 census

  • Avoid self-selection by religion or spirituality

  • Avoid overtly religious questions - about God, church, religion, ghosts.

  • In depth qualitative: tease out meaning


260 informants
260 Informants Christian for the 2001 census

  • Aged 14 – 83 – bulge in the middle

  • Male/female

  • Socio-economic – majority middle/lower SEGs


Data gathering
Data gathering Christian for the 2001 census

  • 68 face-to-face interviews: recorded, transcribed verbatim

  • Participant observation

  • Group discussions


Multi dimensional
Multi-dimensional Christian for the 2001 census

  • Content –what do they believe in

  • Resource – where did they source them

  • Practice – what do they do with them

  • Salience – how and why is this important?

  • Function – what does this belief do and why?


Opening question
Opening question Christian for the 2001 census

1. What do you believe in?


Jordan 14
Jordan, 14 Christian for the 2001 census

A: What do you believe in?

J: Nowt.

A: Sorry?

J: I don’t believe in owt. I don’t believe in any religions.

A: You don’t believe in any religions.

J: No. I’m Christian but I don’t believe in owt.


Morality
Morality Christian for the 2001 census

  • What are rights and wrongs for you? Examples?

  • Have they changed for you?

  • How do you know those things?

  • How do you put that into practice?

  • Has there ever been an inspirational figure to you, real or fictional?

  • Are there any books, movies, TV programmes which have significance for you and influenced you?


Meaning transcendence
Meaning & Transcendence Christian for the 2001 census

  • When are you happiest?

  • When are you must unhappy?

  • What happens to you after you die?

  • What frightens you?

  • What do you do to comfort you during those times?

  • What, or who, is most important to you in your life?


Influence and control
Influence and Control Christian for the 2001 census

  • How much influence or control do you think you have over your life?

  • Do you ever think about the purpose or meaning in life? If so, what?

  • No one can say for certain how it all began, but I wonder what your thoughts might be on how the universe came into being?


Believing in belonging
Believing in belonging: Christian for the 2001 census

Affective, reciprocal human relationships

the main site for sourcing and expressing

meaning, morality and transcendence.


Us and others
Us and others Christian for the 2001 census

Young - rude, disrespectful, dangerous

Not English – criminals, immoral, dangerous

Non-traditional female – rude, disrespectful, bad mothers, dangerous.


Final question
Final question Christian for the 2001 census

  • Census: For the first time there was a question about people’s religion - none Christian, Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Jewish, Buddhist or you could say other and write something different or you didn’t have to answer it. What did you say? [Or, a variation for students: do you know what you would have said?]


68 interviews
68 Interviews Christian for the 2001 census

  • 20: None

  • 2 Buddhists

  • 1 Muslim

  • 4: Other

  • 4: Don’t know

  • 37: Christian


Why christian
Why Christian? Christian for the 2001 census

  • 37 Christians:

    • 18 Adherent

    • 19 Nominalists


Nominalist christians 19
Nominalist Christians (19) Christian for the 2001 census

  • Ethnic Christians

  • Natal Christians


Terry 47
Terry, 47 Christian for the 2001 census

  • “Well, I believe in fate, luck. We’re doing what we do and we are what we are randomly. If that makes sense. I don’t believe in one great deity who’s pulling strings up in sky.”


Why did he say christian
Why did he say Christian? Christian for the 2001 census

  • “Well, only because they asked us to, not because, we wouldn't have any qualms, but that’s the British way, isn’t it? If people are not religious, they’re C of E. Church of England. Weddings, funerals and christenings.”


Alien culture
Alien culture Christian for the 2001 census

T: I mean, there’s a bit of anti-Muslim feeling as anywhere else.

A: There is around here?

T: Oh, aye. But that’s because they read bloody stupid newspapers like Sun and all that. Which stir it up, don’t they? I mean, I wouldn’t go shoot somebody just because he was a Muslim, but that is an alien culture to our culture, isn’t it? Or is it? Am I just taking the same fears up as other people?


May and robert 70s
May and Robert, 70s Christian for the 2001 census

  • M: Yeah, yeah, we would be Christian. Definitely. Yeah.

  • A: You would have ticked the box that said Christian?

  • M: Yeah.

  • A: And -

  • R: Was it on that census where you were British, you could be British but not English or something. Is that what they’re talking about bringing in?


Why did they say christian
Why did they say Christian? Christian for the 2001 census

A: Do you think that’s different than other people’s outlooks who wouldn’t be Christian?

R: In some cases, yes, yeah. I don’t want to bring racism into it, but it’s difficult not to in certain cases. But I’d class the treatment of females by the Muslims, and I’m afraid this is the Kilroy Silk situation coming out, but I think it’s always been my belief that the women are trodden into the ground in the Muslim world, entirely.


Chris 42
Chris, 42 Christian for the 2001 census

A: What about other people who aren’t Christian? Don’t they have those beliefs?

C: Well, I don’t know. I don’t really know any. I don’t have anything to do with, um, any other religion’s people. No doubt Pakistanis, and Hindus and Muslims and whatever have their own thoughts on it. Probably very nice people, I just think there’s too many of them in our country.


Not believing in owt but birthright
Not believing in owt but birthright Christian for the 2001 census

J: No, I don’t, but my Grandma and Granddad do. They’re like Irish and really strong Christians.

A: And so they believe in - ?

J: The whole bible thing.

A: And God, and Jesus?

J: Yeah.

A: So those people are Christians and they believe in all that stuff, and you’re a Christian but you don’t believe in that stuff.

J: No.


Certified by birth
Certified by Birth Christian for the 2001 census

A: What makes you think or say, or describe yourself as Christian?

J: Well, on my birth certificate it says I’m Christian, so.


Kathleen 15 student
Kathleen, 15, student Christian for the 2001 census

  • Christian. ‘Cos I definitely would never be, well, I’m definitely not Sikh or a Muslim or whatever, and I don’t think, I think being atheist is probably very close-minded, really. If you don’t believe in anything then that’s a bit sad, really, if you don’t have any beliefs, whatsoever at all. So I’d probably put Christian ‘cos that’s what my parents are and that’s, if I was anything, like I said before, I’d be Christian. That would be the thing that definitely, if I decided I believed in anything then I’d become Christian, like thoroughly.


Conclusion
Conclusion Christian for the 2001 census

  • Christian identity is important as a matter of immediate, engaged faith for some

  • As ethnic and natal identity for others


Further research
Further research Christian for the 2001 census

  • If half the Christians in my study are ‘in name only’, what does this tell us about the results of larger surveys?

  • Do we need to question implications of religious affiliation?

  • Are there better ways to find out what people really mean?


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