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Good regulatory and CA practices at UNECE projects. Rio-de-Janeiro, December 2006. Plan of the presentation. About UNECE Good Regulatory Governance – current tendencies (good regulatory practices) WP.6 and GRP WP.6 and GCAP Market surveillance Conclusions. CA. IS. US. FI. NO. SE.

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Good regulatory and CA practices

at UNECE projects

Rio-de-Janeiro, December 2006

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Plan of the presentation

About UNECE

Good Regulatory Governance – current tendencies (good regulatory practices)

WP.6 and GRP

WP.6 and GCAP

Market surveillance

Conclusions

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


50 80 of world trade is between unece member states 55 member states europe north america cis l.jpg

CA

IS

US

FI

NO

SE

EE

RU

LV

DK

LT

NL

BY

IE

GB

PL

DE

BE

CZ

L

UA

KZ

SK

AT

FR

HU

CH

M D

SL

RO

HR

BA

YU

IT

BG

GE

KG

MK

AL

UZ

AM

ES

AZ

TM

GR

TR

PT

TJ

MT

CY

IL

50 - 80 % of World Trade is between UNECE Member States(55 member States, Europe, North America, CIS)

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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The UNECE’s Support to Governments and Business(since 1947)

  • Legal Instruments (conventions, standards, regulations …)

  • Trade & Transport Facilitation

  • Harmonization & Standardization

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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TRADE AND TRANSPORT FACILITATION

Reducing trade transaction costs through:

  • Harmonisation and Simplification of Procedures

  • Standardisation of Documentation and Information Flows

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Trade Facilitation: Achievements

  • UN layout key for trade documents

  • UN/EDIFACT

  • Codes for trade locations

  • UN/CEFACT supply chain reference model

  • E-commerce standards

  • “Single Window”

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Jaimurzina:

TIR stand for “Transport internationaux routiers”

Transport

  • Regulations:

    Regulations on vehicles’ construction

    Transport of dangerous goods

  • Agreements:

    International transport of goods

    (transit under TIR convention)

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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HARMONIZATION &STANDARDIZATION

  • Good Regulatory Practices in Trade

  • Agricultural Quality Standards

  • Harmonization of Statistical Data Definitions and Collection

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Quality Standards for:

  • Fresh and Dried Fruits and Vegetables

  • Meat

  • Potatoes

  • Egg & Egg products

  • Cut flowers

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Good Regulatory Practices

  • Working Party on Regulatory Cooperation and Standardization Policies (Working Party 6)

  • International Model for Technical Harmonization (UNECE Recommendation “L”)

  • Promoting good practices in standardization, regulatory techniques and market surveillance

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Good Regulatory Governance & Practices

  • Why Good Regulatory Practices (GRP)?

    GRP:

  • Good regulatory quality

  • Good governance

  • Gains for society

  • Regulatory impact assessment

  • Cost efficiency for society

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Regulatory differences:possibilities to improve

  • National (Brazil):

  • Starting a business takes:

  • 19 days in Minas Gerais

  • 152 days in São Paulo

  • In international context, based on an OECD study of 155 States, at a world level:

  • Minas Gerais is ranked 30

  • São Paolo is ranked 149

  • (Source "Doing Business in Brazil", IFC/World Bank publication, 2006)

  • International GRP context:

  • Work at OECD, APEC, US, EC and EU countries, etc.

  • GRP training (on RIA-College of Europe)

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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From « culture of control » to « culture of shared responsibilities »

  • “Traditional” regulatory approach:

  • Control  inspect  punish

    “Smart” regulatory approach:

  • Focus on outcome (not on tools/means)

  • Cost/benefit assessment through consultation, balance of interests

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Regulatory approaches « culture »

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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« Smart » regulation provides:

  • Problem definition/risks profile/scenarios

  • Objective of regulation/incentives

  • Solution justification (alternatives)

  • Effectivness to reach the outcome

  • Benefits/costs calculation

  • Proportionality of chosen measures

  • Consistent/simple (versus legislation)

  • Overall social net effect

  • cost-efficienct outcome for society

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Consulation with civil society -WHY ?

  • Transparency = understanding = compliance

  • Reduce regulatory failures ( problem or its "shadow" ?)

  • Best solution = technological or structural ?

  •    Result: « Smart" regulation, partnerships, good

    governance

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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GRP & WP.6

  • Technical regulations – where to start?

  • Should you regulate?

  • If yes, what is the potential impact?

  • Based on impact assessment,

    how you shall regulate?

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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International UNECE Forum on Common Regulatory Language for Global Trade,Geneva, 20-21 June 2006

  • “UNECE region plus…” event

  • Good regulatory practices (WTO, OECD, ISO, UNECE)

  • Regional experiences (EU, North America, ASEAN, MERCOSUR, CIS)

  • To regulate or not to regulate…

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Regulatory Method - « self-regulation »  Global Trade,(examples)

  • Information awareness (by/for industry and consumers/users). standards, voluntary certification, quality/environment management schemes, industry codes (company; sectoral;

    multi (uni) lateral; "recognized", etc.), customer charters, official codes/guidelines…

  • Need for regional/international convergence?

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Regulatory Method - Binding Regulation Global Trade,(examples)

  • Performance regulations; mandatory information/labelling; economic incentives (taxes, subsidies, "user pay" charges, loans/loan guarantees, insurance, public expenditure, public ownership, etc.); certification; …

  • Need for regional/international convergence ?

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Promoting Good Practices Global Trade,

  • The Team of Specialists on Standardization and Regulatory Techniques(“START”)

  • The Advisory Group on Market Surveillance(“MARS” Group)

  • Promoting Good Governance including dialogue and cooperation with the private sector and NGOs

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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International Model for Technical Harmonization (REC. L) Global Trade,

PRINCIPLES

  • National technical regulations on the basis of international (regional) standards

  • "Common regulatory objectives" on the basis of mutually agreed safety and other legitimate requirements

  • Regulators should not harmonize existing regulations, but rather should try to agree on what safety (etc.) levels they would like to achieve

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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International Model for Technical Harmonization Global Trade,

  • Regional application: CIS agreement on technical harmonization

  • Balkan project: training of officials on good regulatory practices

  • Sectoral application:

    • The TELECOM initiative

    • Earth-Moving Machinery

    • Safety of Pipelines Initiative (2005)

    • Equipment for explosive environment. (June 2006)

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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UNECE/SIDA Southeast Europe Regulatory Project Global Trade,

  • Identify regulatory-related obstacles to regional trade

  • Agree on national and regional regulatory priorities

  • Propose solutions for regulatory convergence

  • Promote good regulatory practices

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Good Practices for Global Trade,Conformity Assessment (GPCA)

  • WTO principles transformed in GPCA:

  • SDoC (pre-requisite: liability laws for manufacturers and efficient market surveillance)

  • Acceptance of CA results («one test-one certificate-accepted worldwide»)

  • Less certification (voluntary compliance means?)

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Conformity Assessment Global Trade,at WP.6

  • National and regional developments (laws, procedures, changes in infrastructure)

  • Accreditation developments

  • Quality and environmental schemes (quality national policies, awards, integrated schemes, public governance, etc.)

  • Definitions (support to ISO work )

  • Market surveillance

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Market Surveillance (MS) Global Trade,at WP.6

  • UN General Assembly decision 54/449 of 22 December 1999 (United Nations Guidelines for Consumer Protection)

  • International MS Forums (2002 & 2005)

  • Etablishing «MARS» Group in 2003

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Control of Safety Global Trade,(at which stage and how?)

Design Production Placing on market

  • Certification Market surveilance

  • From certification to MS (& maybe to SDoC)

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Market Surveillance (MS Global Trade,)

  • Common feature- no (few) common features

  • Differencies in institutional structure (number of bodies, to whom repport),

  • Scope of work (safety or plus quality, IPR), legal basis, …

  • Less certification  more market surveilance?

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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EU (EC) requirements Global Trade,for national MS organization

  • organize communication and national coordination between relevant authorities (incl. labour inspectorates and customs)

  • establish necesary procedures (for non-compliant products) in order to:

    • Record of complaints/reports and follow-up

    • Monitor accidents and damage to health, public interest

    • Establish/implement MS programmes for specific categories of products or risks

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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EU (EC) requirements for MS measures (authorities shall:) Global Trade,

  • Perform checks on safety (and other issues) on adequate scale through appropriate controls (documentary, or physical, laboratory checks)

  • Apply best practices and sound resources

  • Take necessary representative samples of products for controls

  • Require that necessary documentation/information is available by economic operators (manufacturer, importer, distributor)

    …/…

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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  • Take appropriate necessary national measures to alert/inform users of the risks from dangerous products placed on the market     

  • Cooperate with economic operators on actions to avoid or reduce risks caused by their product

  • Carry out other duties with due independence and observe confidentiality and professional secrecy

  • Take appropriate measures when a dangerous product is detected (or sufficient reason to believe it) on the basis of a risk analysis (taking into account the precautionary principle)

  • Contribute to and use EU integrated information system on MS

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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EC Proposals for EU MS Electonic Information System users of the risks from dangerous products placed on the market     

  • Archiving of data

  • Information exchange on MS activities in general

  • Particular MS information (MS statistics, information by sector, by product, ...)

  • Risk analysis methodlogies and results

  • Anaylsis of accidents with comparative data to exchange/adopt best practices

  • Information on counterfeits that could have impact on health, or other issues of public interest

  • Accessible to public (with safegurad of confidentiality and professional secrecy)

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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MS problems and solutions users of the risks from dangerous products placed on the market     (examples from “MARS” Group)

  • Legal representation on the market

  • Intellectual property rights (IPRs) and MS

  • Sampling, misleading labelling , success criteria, etc.

  • Who needs MS (state, companies)? Coordination …

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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“Disappearing” companies users of the risks from dangerous products placed on the market     

  • Who “represents” the product on the market?

  • Slovakia: Control by authorities (of legal papers and of premises) which grant permissions to sell on markets

  • Israel: Regime for imported goods based on risks of products and their use

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Israel – four imported products’ groups users of the risks from dangerous products placed on the market     

  • High danger (207 products; toys, electrical home appliances …): certification of each shipment

  • Medium (120 ; carpets, bottles ...): type approval

  • Low  (39; ceramic tiles ...) : importer’s declaration.

  • For industrial use (11): SDoC

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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IPR & UNECE users of the risks from dangerous products placed on the market     Recommendation “M”

  • Counterfeits = 5-7 % of international trade (in Russia: up to 1/3 in some sectors)

  • Counterfeit conformity assessment marks

  • Use of market surveillance against counterfeit goods (under preparation - adoption in 2007?)

  • Need for coordination on national level  (IPR & other matters with customs, consumer protection, etc.)

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Sampling in MS: users of the risks from dangerous products placed on the market     Who pays?

  • Brazil: - manufacturer replaces product to retailer

  • Russia, Belarus: retailer pays (restrictions on inspections to avoid abuse)

  • Czech Republic: MS body takes a product for inspection (charged when product meets requirements)

  • EU, Indonesia, Turkey, etc.: MS body buys the product from its budget

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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New problems - new experiences users of the risks from dangerous products placed on the market     

  • Misleading labelling (fresh orange juice, cholesterol free, only 1% salt, etc.)

  • Choice of laboratories to inspect products (through tender?)

  • Criteria of MS success (0% or 100% of inspected products are safe?)

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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Conclusions & Way forward users of the risks from dangerous products placed on the market     

  • GRPs and GPCA: no «one size-fit all » recipe

  • “Think globally - act locally”: “tailor” your own solutions on the basis of national and international experiences

  • UNECE welcomes you to join its work

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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For more information, please contact: users of the risks from dangerous products placed on the market     Mr. (Dr.) Serguei Kouzmine

Secretary to UNECE Working Party on Regulatory Cooperation and Standardization Policies (WP.6)Tel. (+41 22) 917 2771; Fax (41 22) 917 0479/0037e-mail : [email protected]

Thank you ! OBRIGADO !

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe


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