Radiation effects on spacecraft and countermeasures
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Radiation Effects on Spacecraft and Countermeasures. Selected Cases. Wolfgang Keil EADS ASTRIUM GmbH Friedrichshafen. Radiation Effects on Spacecraft. DOCUMENTED DATA ON OBSERVED EFFECTS SPACE WEATHER OBSERVED SELECTED CASES Predicted Effects (e. g. XMM, CLUSTER) Manifested Effects

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Radiation Effects on Spacecraft and Countermeasures

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Radiation effects on spacecraft and countermeasures

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft and Countermeasures

Selected Cases

Wolfgang Keil

EADS ASTRIUM GmbH

Friedrichshafen

2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

DOCUMENTED DATA ON OBSERVED EFFECTS

SPACE WEATHER OBSERVED SELECTED CASES

  • Predicted Effects (e. g. XMM, CLUSTER)

  • Manifested Effects

  • Temporary Effects

    COUNTERMEASURES

  • Origin (Environment, Source Term)

  • Cause (Failure Mechanism)

  • Effects on S/C

  • Tools for Evaluation of Source Term and Effects (e.g. SPENVIS)

  • Radiation behavior differentiation on:

    • Payload (Experiments, Instruments, Sensors, etc.)

    • Platform (Power subsystem, Avionics, Propulsion, OBDH, TM&TC, Thermal subsystem)

  • Countermeasures by Design

    • Radiation Analysis (criticality analysis) on unit/system level

    • Selection of hardened electronic parts and materials

    • Implementation of EDAC, TMR, etc.

  • Countermeasures by Operational Measures

Page 1 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft1

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • At industry limited data is collected and evaluated on S/C behavior in orbit.

  • Information on in orbit performance is mainly at space operation centres (e. g. ESOC) or at Institutes (PI).

  • Lessons learned is a product assurance task (alerts, warning notes issuing dept. )

Page 2 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft2

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Documented Data on Observed Effects due to Space Environment

    • excellent overview but fairly old status from 1996:

      NASA-RP-1390, “Spacecraft System Failures and Anomalies Attributed to the Natural Space Environment”

      or:

      http://www.sat-index.com (satellite news digest)

Page 3 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft3

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • SELECTED CASES

    • Predicted Effects

    • Manifested Effects:

      • Solar cell degradation (e. g. CLUSTER, XMM)

    • Temporary Effects

      • Startracker behaviour (e.g. ROSETTA)

      • Bit flips and EDAC behaviour (e.g. mass memory, CLUSTER SSR)

      • Measured data on SREM (e.g. ROSETTA)

Page 4 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft4

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Predicted Effects: ECSS-E-10-04A, ECSS-E-10-12A draft, Source Term and Effects: Tools: e.g. SPENVIS, CREME96

Cosmic ray LET spectra for typical missions

Page 5 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft5

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Origin of Effect: SPE: 14/15 July 2000, the Proton flux has not significantly exceeded the 1989 design flare, for >10 MeV its 24000 pfu is less than 40000 pfu in maximum (1989 flare), Particle Flux Units (pfu)=1p+ cm-2 sr-1 s-1

Page 6 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft6

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Manifested Effects: XMM-Newton (Solar Cells)

Page 7 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft7

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Manifested Effects: CLUSTER (Solar Cells), Degradation BOL (16 July 2000)-July 2005~14.8%, <5%/y; Differences in SA,

Page 8 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft8

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • SPE Nov 2001

Page 9 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft temporary effects cluster courtesy esoc j volpp l jagger

SC 4: 2001

Proton storms

SC 4: 2003

10000

proton

flux

SEUs

1000

100

10

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft -Temporary Effects - CLUSTER, courtesy ESOC/J. Volpp, L.Jagger

Page 10 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft9

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

Temporary Effects - ROSETTA

  • The solar flare on 8/9 Sept. 05, hit the spacecraft at the beginning of the weekly non-coverage period. When the signal was acquired for the weekly contact on 15 Sept. the spacecraft was found with the active Star Tracker crashed in INIT mode, and the second Star Tracker (not used for attitude control) in Standby mode.

  • AOCS had determined the attitude over a period of 6 days using gyroscopes only, and accumulated therefore a drift of about 0.7 degrees, of which 0.3 degrees offset in the High Gain Antenna pointing direction, small enough to allow the RF signal to be received on ground. The recovery activities took most of the ground station pass on 15 Sept. At the end both Star Trackers were back in tracking mode and the nominal attitude reacquired.

Page 11 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft temporary effects rosetta position srem measurements at 1 23 1 6 au

Radiation Effects on SpacecraftTemporary Effects - ROSETTA Position SREM Measurements at 1.23-1.6 AU

MARS

EARTH

30° behind Earth

ROSETTA

Page 12 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft and countermeasures

Radiation Effects on SpacecraftTemporary Effects - ROSETTA SREM Measurements, courtesy P.Nieminen, ESTEC

Rosetta SREM vs. GOES proton data, solar event of 8 September 2005

SREM on Rosetta

GOES

Page 13 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft10

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

COUNTERMEASURES

  • Detailed knowledge necessary on:

    • Origin (Environment, Source Term)

    • Cause (Failure Mechanism)

      • Total Ionizing Dose

      • Single Event Effects (SEU, SEL, SEGR, SEB)

      • Displacement Effects

    • Effects on S/C

      • specified parameters and reliability

    • Tools for Evaluation of Source Term, Effects (e.g. SPENVIS , CREME96, GEANT4)

Page 14 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft11

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Radiation Damage on Semiconductor

Page 15 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft12

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Proton Interaction

Page 16 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft13

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Interaction with galactic cosmic rays and Si (ions)

Page 17 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft14

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Bit flip in Memory Cell (SEU)

Page 18 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft15

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Latch up

Page 19 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft16

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

Displacement Effects (e. g. solar cell, opt.):

  • Nonionising energy loss (NIEL) manifesting in lattice defects

  • Lattice defects by ejection of atoms from their equilibrium position due to incident particles with suitable kinetic energy

  • Knocked out atom position may be taken by the displacing ion

  • Affected electrical parameters: leakage current, conductivity, mobility of carriers

Page 20 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft17

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Radiation Sensitivity of Parts

CMOS (SOS/SOI) (insensitive)

CMOS

APS

Standard bipolar (bad low dose rate performance, some degrade unbiased)

Low power Schottky bipolar

NMOS DRAMs (highest sensitivity)

CCD (ideal particle counter, SOHO)

Page 21 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft18

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Radiation response behavior differentiation on:

    • Payload (Experiments, Instruments (laser crystal), Sensors (CCD, APS, HgCdTe), glas windows, etc.)

    • Platform (Power subsystem, Avionics, Propulsion, OBDH, TM&TC, Thermal subsystem a/e -degradation)

Page 22 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


Radiation effects on spacecraft19

Radiation Effects on Spacecraft

  • Countermeasures by Design

    • Selection of hardened electronic parts and materials

    • Irradiation Tests (total dose, SEU tests)

    • Implementation of shielding (intelligent selection of absorbing material)

    • Implementation of EDAC, TMR etc.

    • Redundancy of boards, units (not useful for weak devices)

  • Countermeasures by Operational Measures

    • Operational concept (e. g. XMM) (not suitable for SW events)

Page 23 2nd European Space Weather Week - Presentation_Keil.ppt - 17 Oct 2005


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