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Entomology 462 Orders of Insects. David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The “BugDoc”. The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH. Revised: September, 2007 - DJS. Class Hexapoda (the insects). Three tagmata – head, thorax, abdomen

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Entomology 462

Orders of Insects

David J. Shetlar, Ph.D.

The “BugDoc”

The Ohio State University,

OARDC & OSU Extension

Columbus, OH

Revised: September, 2007 - DJS


Class Hexapoda

(the insects)

  • Three tagmata – head, thorax, abdomen

  • Thorax with three pairs of legs; normally two pairs of wings in adult stage

  • Head with one pair of antennae

  • Respiration by trachea

  • Terrestrial & fresh water inhabitants


Class Hexapoda

(all have one pair of antennae, a head, thorax & abdominal regions, three pair of legs, adults usually have wings, use trachea)

Life Cycle Groups

  • Simple Metamorphosis (=incomplete) - egg, nymph, adult stages

  • Complete Metamorphosis - egg, larva, pupa, adult stages


Egg Nymphal Adult

Stage Stage Stage

Incomplete Metamorphosis Example

(hairy chinch bug)

egg 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th adult

instar instar instar instar instar


Incomplete Metamorphosis Example Adult

(hairy chinch bug)

egg 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th normal wing short wing

instar instar instar instar instar adult adult

Egg Nymphal Adult

Stage Stage Stage


Egg Larval Pupal Adult

Stage Stage Stage Stage

Complete Metamorphosis Example

(May/June beetle)

egg 1st 2nd 3rd pupa adult

instar instar instar


Egg Larval Pupal Adult

Stage Stage Stage Stage

Complete Metamorphosis Example

(northern masked chafer)

egg 1st 2nd 3rd pupa adult

instar instar instar


Hexapod Orders Pupal Adult

Entognathous Hexapods –

Order Protura

Order Collembola

Order Diplura

Ectognathous apterygote Hexapods –

Order Microcoryphia

Order Thysanura

Pterygote Hexapods –

(simple metamorphosis)

Order Ephemeroptera

Order Odonata

Order Orthoptera

Order Phasmatodea

Order Dermaptera

Order Plecoptera

Order Isoptera

(simple metamorphosis cont’d)

Order Mantodea

Order Blattodea

Order Hemiptera

Order Thysanoptera

Order Psocoptera

Order Phthiraptera

(complete metamorphosis)

Order Coleoptera

Order Neuroptera

Order Hymenoptera

Order Trichoptera

Order Lepidoptera

Order Siphonaptera

Order Diptera


Orders of Insects Pupal Adult

(no metamorphosis)

  • Some consider these groups insect-like and place in different class or subclass.

  • Adults do not have wings and may molt after becoming mature

  • Thysanura - silverfish, firebrats

  • Collembola - springtails


Thysanura Pupal Adult

(silverfish, firebrats; 0.4K spp.)

[no wings as adults, 2-3 caudal appendages (two cerci and sometimes central telson); adults may continue to molt]


Collembola Pupal Adult

(springtails; >6K spp.)

[no wings as adults, caudal appendage designed for jumping (furcula & colliphore); adults may molt]


Orders of Insects Pupal Adult

(simple metamorphosis)

  • Ephemeroptera - mayflies, shadflies

  • Odonata - dragonflies, damselflies

  • Orthoptera - grasshoppers, crickets, katydids

  • Dermaptera – earwigs

  • Plecoptera - stoneflies

  • Isoptera - termites


Ephemeroptera Pupal Adult

(Mayflies, shadflies, Canadian soldiers; 2K spp.)

[front wings large, triangular, held over body at rest; hind wings small or absent; aquatic nymphs with abdominal gills; caudal appendages (2 or 3) long; chewing mouthparts often non-functional in adult]


Odonata Pupal Adult

(dragonflies and damselflies; 5K spp.)

[front and hind wings narrow with many cross veins, membranous; aquatic nymphs (naiads) predatory with caudal or rectal gills; antennae bristlelike, no abdominal cerci; chewing mouthparts]


Orthoptera Pupal Adult

(grasshoppers, crickets, Katydids; >20K spp.)

[front wings leathery, hind wings folded like a fan, chewing mouthparts, two cerci - usually short]


Dermaptera Pupal Adult

(earwigs; 1.8K spp.)

[front wings short, leathery; hind wings double folded; abdominal cerci forceps-like; chewing mouthparts]

Seashore earwig adult

European earwig with eggs


Plecoptera Pupal Adult

(stoneflies; 2K spp.)

[front wings narrow; hind wings folded fanlike; aquatic nymphs (naiads) with abdominal gills; abdominal cerci straight, moderately long; chewing mouthparts]


Isoptera Pupal Adult

(termites; >2.3K spp.)

[social insects, winged reproductives with both wings same size and membranous; straight or curved antennae consists of beadlike segments; abdomen broadly joined to thorax; one to two-segmented cerci; chewing mouthparts]


Orders of Insects Pupal Adult

(incomplete metamorphosis cont’d)

  • Mantoidea – mantids

  • Blattodea – cockroaches

  • Hemiptera - true bugs & bug-like insects

  • Thysanoptera - thrips

  • Psocoptera - barklice, booklice

  • Phthiraptera - biting & sucking lice


Mantodea Pupal Adult

(mantids, praying mantis; ~1.8K spp.)

[front legs raptorial (modified for grasping), prothroax elongated, chewing mouthparts, two short cerci]


Blattodea Pupal Adult

(cockroaches; <4K spp.)

[body flattened and oval, front wings leathery, hind wings folded like a fan, chewing mouthparts, two short cerci]


Hemiptera Pupal Adult(s.o. Heteroptera)

(true bugs; 23K spp.)

[front wings half leathery & half membranous; hind wings membranous; usually long antennae; sucking mouthparts arise from front of head]


Hemiptera ( Pupal Adults.o. Auchenorrhyncha)

(buglike insects: cicadas, leaf, plant & tree hoppers; 33K spp.)

[front wings same texture throughout, leathery or membranous (wings often absent); long or bristlelike antennae; sucking mouthparts arise from back of head or between front legs]


Hemiptera ( Pupal Adults.o. Sternorrhyncha)

(buglike insects: psyllids, whiteflies, aphids, mealybugs, & scales)


Thysanoptera Pupal Adult

(thrips; 4.5K spp.)

[small; front and hind wings bladelike with hair fringe, often absent; mouthparts modified rasping sucking; antennae short]


Psocoptera Pupal Adult

(psocids, booklice, barklice; >3K spp.)

[front wings with reduced venation; hind wings reduced or absent; wings often absent; distinctive frontal bulge on head; long antennae; chewing mouthparts; booklice are extremely flattened]


Phthiraptera ( Pupal AdultMallophaga)

(biting lice; 2.7K spp.)

[very flat, small; no wings; chewing mouthparts; external parasites of birds and mammals]

Chicken biting louse


Phthiraptera (Anoplura) Pupal Adult

(sucking lice; 0.3K spp.)

[small, flattened; no wings; sucking mouthparts; external parasites of mammals]

Human head louse

Human crab louse


Orders of Insects Pupal Adult

(complete metamorphosis)

  • Coleoptera – beetles

  • Neuroptera - dobsonfly, lacewings

  • Hymenoptera - sawflies , bees, wasps

  • Tricoptera - caddisflies

  • Lepidoptera - butterflies & moths

  • Siphonaptera - fleas

  • Diptera - gnats, mosquitoes, flies


Coleoptera Pupal Adult

(beetles & weevils; >300K spp.)

[front wings shelllike, usually covering abdomen; hind wings membranous, folded under forewings; antennae variable, but evident; chewing mouthparts; larvae variously shaped - elongate, grublike, etc.]

Ground beetle

Passalid beetle

Ground beetle larva


Coleoptera Pupal Adult

(beetles & weevils; >300K spp.)

Lady beetle

Rove beetle

May/June

beetle

Bluegrass billbug adult & larva


Neuroptera Pupal Adult

(dobsonfly, lacewings, antlions; 5.5K spp.)

[two pair wings with numerous veins, elongate larvae with elongate mandibles, larvae & adults usually predatory]

Green lacewing adult

Eggs

Cocoon

Larva


Hymenoptera Pupal Adult

(bees, wasps, sawflies; 115K spp.)

[front wings large, hind wings smaller, both membraneous; chewing mouthparts; some with stings - modified ovipositors; larvae caterpillar-like, sawflies; or maggot-like]

Redheaded pine sawfly adult, larvae, & pupae


Hymenoptera Pupal Adult

(bees, wasps, sawflies; 115K spp.)

Aphid wasp parasitizing aphid

Ichneumonid wasp attacking wood-boring larva

Yellowjacket wasp

Acrobat ants


Trichoptera Pupal Adult

(caddisflies; >7K spp.)

[mothlike adults but no scales on wings; front wings narrow, often covered with hairs; larvae caterpillar-like and aquatic]


Lepidoptera Pupal Adult

(butterflies, moths, caterpillars; 150K spp.)

[front and hind wings generally covered with scales; adult mouthparts a sucking tube, larvae have chewing mouthparts and prolegs on abdomen]

Cranberry girdler moth

Luna moth

Red admiral butterfly


Lepidoptera Pupal Adult

(butterflies, moths, caterpillars; 150K spp.)

Fiery skipper butterfly – adult, egg, larva & pupa in cocoon


Siphonaptera Pupal Adult

(fleas; 2.4K spp.)

[wingless, extoparasitic adults; laterally compressed; jumping hind legs; larvae have chewing mouthparts and resemble midge larvae]

Cat flea adult and larva


Diptera Pupal Adult

(flies, midges, mosquitoes; >150K spp.)

[front wings membranous; hind wings reduced to small balance organ - haltere; mouthparts piercing-sucking or sponging sucking; larvae wireworm shaped or maggots with chewing or rasping mouthparts]

Mosquito

House fly

Moth fly


Diptera Pupal Adult

(flies, midges, mosquitoes; >150K spp.)

Fruit fly

Hover fly adult (on flower), eggs near aphids and larva eating aphids


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