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Self, Identity, Self-esteem. Self- totality of you Physical body but also your identity, others’ perceptions, etc. Self constructed out of meaning Self-concept = individual’s beliefs about himself or herself; ideas about yourself Self-esteem = how you evaluate yourself Identity = who you are.

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Self, Identity, Self-esteem

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Self identity self esteem l.jpg

Self, Identity, Self-esteem

  • Self- totality of you

    • Physical body but also your identity, others’ perceptions, etc.

    • Self constructed out of meaning

  • Self-concept = individual’s beliefs about himself or herself; ideas about yourself

  • Self-esteem = how you evaluate yourself

  • Identity = who you are


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Self-Concept

  • How do people learn about themselves?

    • Infancy – learns boundaries of own body

    • 2nd year of life – learn how to do things, develop idea of mastery

      • Smile when learn something

      • Able to identify self as child, gender

    • 3- 5 years of age

      • Emphasize skills and abilities

      • Think about self as physical body


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Self-concept

  • Tends to be very broad

  • Only some pieces salient at any one time

  • Boy/girl groups studies


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Self-knowledge motives

  • Gain accurate info. about self

  • Gain confirmation of what you already believe about self

  • Learn positive, favorable things about self

    People tend to have all 3 motives

    Which is strongest??


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Typical rankings of motives based on empirical findings

  • Self-enhancement

  • Consistency

  • Accurate info. – distant third

    Sober cognitive response will recognize dubious nature of many flattering pieces of info.

    Emotionally potent info. rules


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Self-concept – development cont’

  • 6 to 11: sense of competency & control continue to increase

  • See competencies in more complex terms

  • Social comparisons important

  • Idea that some of self as being hidden from view emerges

  • Teen age years: self-consciousness increases. Reflects ability to imagine how one appears to others


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Measurement issues

  • Think about how one might measure self-concept or self-esteem. What potential problems do you see?


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Measurement issues cont.

Problems:

  • Self-presentational concerns

  • Biases in self-perceptions: accuracy??

  • Implicit vs. explicit self views (awareness vs. unawareness)


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Greenwald & Farnham

Implicit Association Test – designed to address that last issue

  • Measures implicit self-esteem

  • Actual task somewhat complicated to describe—try it online at

    https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/index.jsp


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IAT/Greenwald cont’

  • Indirect measure does not rely on introspection

  • Not susceptible to self-presentational concerns


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Asendorpf et al.

  • IAT applied to shyness

  • Want to look at differences in the way that people report shyness and implicit measures of shyness

    • Shy people may lack self-insight?

    • Unwillingness to report being shy?


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Method

  • 139 heterosexual young adults

  • Videotaped in shyness-inducing social situation

  • Took personality questionnaire

  • Took shyness IAT


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Results

  • Significant correlations between self-ratings and IAT shyness ratings


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