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Nutrition Basics FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS. Ces. What are fat-soluble vitamins?. Vitamins A, K, E, & D Need fat to be absorbed in the small intestine Stored in the liver and in fat cells and are excreted more slowly than water soluble vitamins. Vitamin A. Vitamin A. Role in Body Functions:

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Nutrition basics fat soluble vitamins

Nutrition BasicsFAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS

Ces


What are fat soluble vitamins
What are fat-soluble vitamins?

  • Vitamins A, K, E, & D

  • Need fat to be absorbed in the small intestine

  • Stored in the liver and in fat cells and are excreted more slowly than water soluble vitamins



Vitamin a1
Vitamin A

  • Role in Body Functions:

    • Vision

      • Produces pigments in the retina

      • Promotes overall good vision, especially in low light

    • Skeletal Tissue

      • Promotes healthy teeth and bone development

    • Cell Division & Differentiation

      • Important in maintenance of all organs


Vitamin a2
Vitamin A

  • Role in Body Function:

    • Regulation of the Immune System

      • Development of lymphocytes

    • Promotes Healthy Cells of Eyes and Respiratory, Urinary, and Intestinal Tracts

      • Maintaining the integrity of these membranes is important because they prevent bacteria from entering into the body and causing an infection.


Daily recommended intakes of vitamin a
Daily Recommended Intakes of Vitamin A

Men

Women

  • 19 years and older

    • 3,000 IUs (900 mcg)

  • 19 years and older

    • 2,310 IUs (700 mcg)

  • Pregnant

    • 2,565 IUs (770 mcg)

  • Lactating

    • 4,300 IUs (1,300mcg)


Vitamin a3
Vitamin A

  • Food Sources of Vitamin A

    • Dairy Products

      • Fortified milk, Skim (1 cup = 500 IUs )

      • Whole milk (1 cup = 249 IUs)

      • Cheese, Cheddar (1 oz = 284 IUs)

    • Brightly colored fruits and vegetables

      • Apricots Nectar, canned (1/2 cup = 1,651 IUs)

      • Carrot, boiled ( ½ cup = 12,418 IUs)

      • Sweet Potato, baked in skin ( 24,877 IUs)

      • Vegetable Soup, canned chunky, ready to serve ( 1 cup = 5,820 IUs)


Vitamin a4
Vitamin A

  • Food Sources of Vitamin A

    • Green Leafy Vegetables

      • Spinach, cooked ( ½ cup = 11,458 IUs)

      • Kale, cooked ( ½ cup = 9,558 IUs)

      • Broccoli, cooked ( ½ cup = 1,740 IUs)

    • Animal sources

      • Liver (3 oz beef = 27,185 IUs)

      • Egg Yolks (1 whole egg = 280 IUs)

      • Egg Substitute, Fortified ( ¼ cup = 226 IUs)



Vitamin k1
Vitamin K

  • Role in Body Function

    • Coagulation (Blood Clotting)

      • Essential for several proteins which stop bleeding through clot formation.

    • Bone Metabolism and Calcium Absorption

      • Aid in bone density and increases the absorption of calcium.

    • Aids in Preventing Heart Disease

      • Prevents hardening of arteries

    • Antioxidant

      • Prevents oxidative cell damage which can lead to certain types of cancer


Forms of vitamin k
Forms of vitamin K

  • 2 main forms:

    • Phylloquinone –

      • Most biologically active form

      • Derived from plant sources

    • Menaquinones-

      • Contributes about 10% of total vitamin K needs

      • Found in animal food sources


Daily recommended intakes of vitamin k
Daily recommended Intakes of Vitamin K

Men

Women

  • Adult

    • 120 mcg/day

  • Adult

    • 90 mcg/day

  • Pregnant/Lactating

    • 75 mcg/day for 18yrs and younger

    • 90 mcg/day for19 yrs and older


Sources of vitamin k
Sources of Vitamin K

  • Green Leafy Vegetables (levels greater than 100 mcg/100 grams)

    • Spinach ( 1 cup = 1027 mcg)

    • Broccoli ( 1 cup = 220 mcg)

    • Parsley, raw (1/4 cup = 246 mcg)

  • Other Sources

    • Liver

    • Soy protein

    • Egg yolks

    • Cow’s milk

    • Soybean, Olive, and Canola oil



Vitamin e1
Vitamin E

  • 8 Different Types of Vitamin E

    • Alpha-Tocopherol (α-tocopherol)

      • Most Active form of Vitamin E

  • Main function is as membrane-associated antioxidant

  • Some research has shown Vitamin E to have a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer


Vitamin e2
Vitamin E

  • Role in the Body

    • Antioxidant

      • Prevents against free radicals

      • Provides a line in defense against tissue damage by free radicals and oxidation.

        • No evidence supplements of vitamin E provide extra protection

    • Healing

      • Increases healing of wounds through increasing cell proliferation and free radical protection.


Recommended intakes of vitamin e
Recommended Intakes of Vitamin E

Men

Women

  • 14 yrs of age +

    • 22.5 IU (15 mg/day )

  • 14 yrs of age +

    • 22.5 IU (15 mg/day)

  • Pregnant

    • 22.5 IU (15 mg/day)

  • Lactating

    • 28.5 IU (19 mg/day)


Food sources of vitamin e
Food Sources of Vitamin E

  • Vegetable Oils

    • Sunflower oil – 5.6 mg/Tbsp

    • Safflower oil – 4.6 mg/Tbsp

    • Corn oil – 1.9 mg/Tbsp

    • Soybean oil – 1.3 mg/Tbsp

  • Nuts

    • Almonds – 7.4 mg/ounce

    • Sunflower seeds – 6.0 mg/ounce

    • Peanuts – 2.2 mg/ounce


Food sources of vitamin e1
Food Sources of Vitamin E

  • Green Vegetables

    • Spinach, cooked - 1.6 mg/ ½ cup

    • Broccoli, cooked – 1.2 mg/ ½ cup

  • Grains

    • Fortified Cereals – 1.6-1.8 mg /ounce

    • Wheat germ – 2.3 mg/ 2 Tbsp

  • Other Sources

    • Avocados – 2.1 mg/ ½ avocado

    • Peanut Butter – 2.5 mg/ 2 Tbsp

    • Tomato Sauce – 2.5 mg/ ½ cup



Vitamin d1
Vitamin D

  • Produced naturally in our bodies when skin is exposed to sunlight.

  • Sun-derived vitamin D may be inadequate because:

    • Lack of adequate regular sun exposure

    • Decreased production with age

    • Colder Climate / Long Winter Season

    • Use of sunscreens

    • Dark Skin = Greater amounts of the pigment melanin decreases ability to produce vitamin D.


Vitamin d2
Vitamin D

  • Role in the Body

    • Bone Development and Health

      • Enhances calcium absorption in the intestine

    • Immune Function

      • Recent research has found Vitamin D aids in the prevention of autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and inflammatory arthritis.

      • Increases body’s ability to eliminate microbes


Vitamin d3
Vitamin D

  • Role in the Body

    • Cell Differentiation

      • Increases differentiation of cells while reducing the production of certain new types of cells (cancer cells).

      • Recent research has shown vitamin D to be important in the prevention of certain types of cancers.


Recommended daily intakes of vitamin d
Recommended Daily Intakes of Vitamin D

Men

Women

  • 200 IUs (5 mcg)

    • Not usually enough

  • Recent research suggests 1,300 IUs (32 mcg)

  • 200-400 IUs (5-10 mcg)

  • Recent research suggests 1,300 IUs (32 mcg)


Vitamin d4
Vitamin D

  • Food Sources (limited)

    • Fish

      • Cod Liver Oil (1 Tbsp = 1,360 IUs)

      • Salmon, cooked ( 3.5 oz = 360 IUs)

      • Tuna fish, caned in oil (3 oz = 345 IUs)

    • Fortified Foods

      • Fortified-Ready to Eat Cereals (1 cup = 40 IUs)

      • Fortified Margarine (1 Tbsp = 60 IUs)

      • Fortified Milk (1 cup = 98 IUs)

    • Other Sources

      • Egg yolk (1 whole egg = 20 IUs)

      • Liver, beef (3.5 oz = 15 IUs)


Fat soluble vitamins
Fat Soluble Vitamins

  • Vitamin A

  • Vitamin K

  • Vitamin E

  • Vitamin D


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