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NAWQA Nutrient Synthesis Past, Present, and Future. USGS Workshop on Nutrient Processes in the Upper Mississippi River Basin UMESC, LaCrosse, WI March 25 – 26, 2002 Jeff Stoner Dave Mueller Norm Spahr Tom Nolan Barb Ruddy Mark Munn Richard Alexander. NAWQA Past 1992 - 2000.

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NAWQA Nutrient Synthesis Past, Present, and Future

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NAWQA Nutrient SynthesisPast, Present, and Future

USGS Workshop on Nutrient Processes in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

UMESC, LaCrosse, WI

March 25 – 26, 2002

Jeff Stoner

Dave Mueller

Norm Spahr

Tom Nolan

Barb Ruddy

Mark Munn

Richard Alexander


NAWQA Past1992 - 2000

  • Status of streams and rivers

  • Status of ground water

  • Relations to land use to water quality

Streams (NO3+NO2, NO2, NH4+OrgN, NH4, TN, DP, OPO4, TP, DOC, SOC)

Ground water (NO3+NO2, NO2, NH4, OPO4, DOC)

Stream habitat, basin and well characteristics, soils, geology, land use and cover, chemical use


Center Creek - Missouri - 760 km2

350

7

Sample

300

6

250

5

200

4

Predicted Nitrate (mg / L)

Streamflow (m3/s)

150

3

100

2

50

1

0

0

O

N

D

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

Water years 1994-95


Total Phosphorus in Streams

Agricultural Areas


Total Nitrogen in Streams

Agricultural Areas


Total Nitrogen in Large Rivers

Mixed Land Use


Mean-Annual Nitrogen in StreamsNAWQA 25-50-75th percentiles (1993-98)

113 sites

75th

50th

169

38

25th

48


Extrapolating Nitrate in Ground Water Calibrated Logistic-Regression Model


Nitrate Probability in Shallow Ground Water

To be published in ES&T,

B.T. Nolan and others, 2002


OVERALL VERIFICATION OF NO3 MAP (1991 AND 1994 WELLS)


Influence of Land Use on Water Quality and Aquatic Biology in Small Streams and Ground WaterUMIS NAWQA Study Unit


Streams

Ground Water


Nutrient yields are largest in streams

draining agricultural areas


Interrelations Between Physical, Chemical and Biological Variables, even for Large Rivers, may best be Explained by Study-Unit Investigators

Sediment

Nitrite + nitrate

Chlorophyll a

Phosphorus


Major Tributaries Have Opposite Influences

on Main Stem TN and TP Concentrations


Nutrient Questions from UMIS NAWQA

Sources and Transport of Agricultural Chemicals in Streams and Ground Water

  • What is the source of phosphorus/sediment in the Minnesota River? Bank erosion? Streambed erosion?

  • How do differing agricultural practices influence the sources and transport rates of agricultural chemicals in streams and ground water?

  • What is the relative contribution of contaminants from ground water, land surface runoff, and tile drains?

    Effects of Nutrient Enrichment on Agricultural Streams

  • How do management practices influence the rate of nutrient assimilation in streams?

  • Does nutrient enrichment contribute to the presence of toxic algae in agricultural streams?


NAWQA Present

  • Status of streams and ground water (add data from study units begun in 1997)

  • Nutrient relations to land use and seasons

  • Final summary results of the Midwest synoptic for algal-nutrients relations in streams (S.D. Porter)

  • Planning the next 10-yr. cycle


Seasonal TotalNitrogen in Streams

Agricultural Areas

Undetermined

Combinations of colors indicate multiple

Seasons

Winter (January-March)

Spring (April-June)

Summer (July-September)

Fall (October-December)

seasons of high concentrations, ex. winter-spring


NAWQA Future2001 - 2011

  • Reduced to 42 study units.

  • Status of streams and ground water continued.

  • Changes in water quality (8 – 12 yr.) and why.

  • Better explain relations to land use and biogeochemical processes.


Start Year


Stream Sites in the NAWQA Trends Program

Compare: 505 to 145 sites; 1st to 2nd decade


NAWQA Trend Sites on Large Rivers

(2001 – 2010+)


NAWQA Trend Sites on Targeted Land Use

(2001 – 2010+)


Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topic (NEET)

Determine how biological communities and processes respond to varying levels of nutrient enrichment in agricultural streams from contrasting environmental settings.

  • Define the relations between biological communities and nutrient conditions in streams.

  • Describe how biological processes and nutrients interact at the watershed and reach scale.

  • Determine whether the relations between biological communities and nutrient conditions can be extrapolated to unmonitored areas.


USEPA Research Needs

  • Periphyton chlorophyll measurements

  • Algal growth requirements

  • Stream models that include periphyton

  • Stream bank, riparian zone, and denitrification

  • Dissolved oxygen and pH amplitude

  • Community effects (ecoregions, metrics, indicator taxa)

  • Fluvial geomorphology as a controlling factor

  • Whole stream enrichment studies

  • Seasonal relationships between nutrient and biomass


Solar

Land UseNutrients SedimentPesticides

Wooded riparian corridors

Water clarity

Shading

Habitat -cover-food

Algal Seston

Filter Feeders

SW flux

Immigration

Invertebrates

Export

Drift

Scrapers Collectors

GW flux

Benthic Algae

Nutrient uptake

DO, pH, SOC relations

Fish & Wildlife

GW-SW relationsSoil Permeability


NEET Stratification


Factors used to define hydrologic landscape regions

Precip – Potential evapotranspiration

Percent sand

Aquifer permeability

Topography


  • Hydrologic landscape regions

  • A statistical clustering (20) of hydrologically important landscape and climate factors

  • Among-region variability in the factors is maximized and within-region variability is minimized


  • Proposed data collection scheme

  • Stratified by hydrologic landscape

  • ~ 28 basins (avoid nesting)

  • Constrain flow

  • Large nutrient gradient

  • Measure stream habitat


Past

Large and consistent nutrients data base for streams and ground water at multiple scales.

Relations to broad categories of land use.

Future

Continue status of nutrients conditions and improve confidence in statistical correlations to land use on other physical factors.

A consistent look at time trends and why.

Improve understanding of biogeochemical processes within streams and near hyporheic zones (NEET) .

Summary NAWQA Nutrients Synthesis


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