Learning objectives
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Learning Objectives. Define substance abuse and addiction Outline the acute effects of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine on the body List several guidelines that can be used to maintain control over alcohol use

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Learning Objectives

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Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Define substance abuse and addiction

  • Outline the acute effects of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine on the body

  • List several guidelines that can be used to maintain control over alcohol use

  • Outline the behavioral and physiological effects of alcohol as a function of the level of alcohol in the blood

  • Discuss the long-term health consequences of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use

  • Describe the addictive properties of tobacco and the impact of prolonged tobacco use on health

  • Describe the acute effects of caffeine on the body

  • Outline products that contain caffeine and list the pros and cons of caffeine use

  • Identify ways to reduce your risk of drug use


What is addiction

What is Addiction?

  • Habitual psychological and physical dependence on a substance or practice that is beyond voluntary control

  • Associated with the following traits:

    • Reinforcement leading to craving

    • Loss of control

    • Escalation

    • Negative outcomes

    • Denial


What is addiction continued

What is Addiction? continued

  • Addiction can involve a substance or behavior

    • Addictive substances include drugs, alcohol, and tobacco

    • Addictive behaviors can include gambling, internet usage, pornography, sex, gaming, eating, shoplifting or exercising

  • Addiction can be physical or psychological

    • Chemical dependence

    • Withdrawal symptoms

    • Tolerance


  • Drugs and their potential for dependence

    Drugs and Their Potential for Dependence

    Table 15.1


    Drugs and their potential for dependence1

    Drugs and Their Potential for Dependence

    Table 15.1 (continued)


    Causes of addiction

    Causes of Addiction

    Addictions can result from numerous potential causes,

    including:

    • Types of drug used

    • Genetics

    • Brain chemistry

    • Psychological makeup

    • Social factors

    • Personality characteristics

    • Heredity


    Substance use vs substance abuse

    Substance Use vs. Substance Abuse

    Substance abuse

    • Use of illegal drugs or inappropriate use of legal drugs to produce pleasure, to alleviate stress, or to alter/avoid reality

    • Occurs when use of a drug interferes with other areas of one’s life, such as grades, work, relationships, or legal issues

      Commonly Abused Substances:

  • Alcohol

  • Illicit drugs, including:

    • Marijuana, Cocaine, Heroin

    • Hallucinogens

    • Inhalants

    • Tranquilizers

    • Stimulants

    • Sedatives


  • Psychoactive drugs

    Psychoactive Drugs

    • Any drug that causes a user to experience an altered state of consciousness

    • Examples of psychoactive drugs:

      • Marijuana (stimulant)

      • Cocaine (powerful stimulant)

      • “Club drugs” – Ecstasy, LSD, GHB, methamphetamine (addictive stimulant)

      • Prescription drugs – OxyContin

      • Over-the-counter drugs such as cough suppressants & expectorants


    Health effects of psychoactive drugs

    Health Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

    • Long-term use of marijuana:

      • Psychological dependence and lung damage

  • Long-term complications from cocaine use:

    • Cardiovascular effects, respiratory effects, neurological effects, GI problems

  • Long term use of methamphetamines:

    • Paranoia, aggressiveness, extreme anorexia, memory loss, hallucinations, delusions, and dental problems

  • Drug use and abuse by pregnant women can have serious health effects on the developing fetus


  • Abc news illicit drugs

    ABC News: Illicit Drugs

    Discussion Questions:

    • Do you think that the man and woman in the video had a history of meth abuse?

    • How did crystal meth interfere with the young man attempting to get help?

    Play

    Video

    | Illicit Drugs


    Alcohol

    Alcohol

    • Most widely-used recreational drug in the U.S. & most popular on college campuses

    • 85% of college students use alcohol & 20-25%

      abuse it

    • Central nervous system depressant:

      • Impaired vision, slowed reaction time, impaired motor coordination

  • The blood level of alcohol determines the extent of central nervous system depression

  • Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is determined by the amount of alcohol consumed, and rate of alcohol metabolized by the body


  • Behavioral and physiological effects of alcohol

    Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Alcohol

    Table 15.3


    Alcohol abuse vs alcohol addiction

    Alcohol Abuse vs. Alcohol Addiction

    Alcohol Abuse

    • Four criteria of abuse:

      • Alcohol use in hazardous situations

      • Alcohol-related school problems

      • Recurrent interpersonal problems

      • Recurrent legal problems

        Alcohol Addiction (alcoholism)

    • Alcohol dependence

    • Disease that involves craving alcohol and not being able to control the impulse to drink

    • Binge drinking


    Health effects of alcohol abuse

    Health Effects of Alcohol Abuse

    • Liver disease (e.g. cirrhosis), which can lead to liver failure and death

    • Damage to the central nervous system, which can result in brain damage

    • Increased risk of cancers including the esophagus, pancreas, stomach, mouth, tongue and liver

    • Drinking while pregnant causes fetal alcohol syndrome and other birth defects

    • Physical, behavioral, and learning problems


    Abc news alcohol

    ABC News: Alcohol

    Discussion Questions:

    • How did each of the men differ in regard to body size, past drinking patterns, and food intake on the day of the competition?

    • How did they differ during the drinking bout, in their roadside sobriety test and in their eventual blood alcohol content?

    • What was each man’s perception of how drunk he was at the end of the drinking competition?

    • Discuss situations when you drank alcohol and thought you were in control but had a high blood alcohol level.

    Play

    Video

    | Alcohol


    Tobacco

    Tobacco

    • Contains nicotine, the most heavily used addictive drug in the U.S.

    • Cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco

    • Nicotine addiction:

      • Provides immediate “psychological kick”

      • Causes withdrawal symptoms

  • Secondhand smoke contains toxic chemicals

    Health Effects of Tobacco Use:

    • Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of death in the U.S. & accounts for one out of every five deaths per year

    • Increases risk of cancers including cancer of the lung, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, and kidney

    • Woman smokers are more likely to lose a baby during pregnancy and have babies with low birth weight


  • Caffeine

    Caffeine

    • A substance found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and certain medications

    • Stimulates the central nervous system (CNS) within 15 minutes

    • Moderate doses (2-4 cups of coffee) increases alertness and provides an energy boost

    • Large doses cause restlessness and irritability

      • Associated with insomnia, headaches, and abnormal heart rhythms.

  • Creates psychological dependence

  • Creates withdrawal symptoms including headache, muscle pain, and fatigue


  • Anabolic steroids

    Anabolic Steroids

    • Synthetic male sex hormones (e.g. testosterone)

    • Available by prescription (tablet or ointment)

    • Health effects:

      • Produces psychological effects including aggressiveness, uncontrolled bouts of anger (“roid rage”), depression

      • Associated with liver cysts and cancer, increased blood cholesterol, increased blood clotting, hypertension, reduced sperm count, testicular shrinkage, impotence, irreversible breast enlargement in men, and development of masculine characteristics in women


    Strategies to avoid drug abuse

    Strategies to Avoid Drug Abuse

    • Find productive ways to increase your self-esteem

    • Learn and practice stress-coping techniques

    • Develop varied interests

    • Practice assertiveness


    Summary

    Summary

    • Alcohol, nicotine (tobacco products), marijuana, and cocaine are the most widely used and abused drugs in the United States

    • Alcohol is the single most common recreational drug used in the United States

    • Use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine increases your risk of accidents, and prolonged use may result in psychological dependence, physical addiction, and damaged health


    Summary continued

    Summary, continued

    • Tobacco use can lead to an addiction to nicotine and prolonged use leads to increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and cancer

    • Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant found in common foods and beverages. It is currently unclear whether chronic consumption is a significant health risk

    • Long-term use of anabolic steroids can cause psychological and physiological side-effects

    • Decrease your risk of abusing drugs by increasing your self-esteem, learning how to cope with stress, developing numerous interests, and practicing assertiveness


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