Responses to Training Stress

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Key Terms . macrocycle: Typically an entire training year but may also be a period of many months up to four years (for Olympic athletes).mesocycles: Two or more cycles within the macrocycle, each lasting several weeks to several months.microcycles: Typically one week long but could last for up to

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Responses to Training Stress

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1. Responses to Training Stress General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Alarm Resistance Exhaustion

2. Key Terms macrocycle: Typically an entire training year but may also be a period of many months up to four years (for Olympic athletes). mesocycles: Two or more cycles within the macrocycle, each lasting several weeks to several months. microcycles: Typically one week long but could last for up to four weeks, depending on the program.

3. Periodization Periods Periodization involves shifting training priorities from non-sport-specific activities of high volume and low intensity to sport-specific activities of low volume and high intensity over a period of many weeks to prevent overtraining and optimize perfor-mance.

4. Figure 19.2

5. Periodization Periods Preparatory Period The initial period is usually the longest and occurs during the time of the year when there are no competitions and only a limited number of sport-specific skill practices or game strategy sessions. The major emphasis of this period is establishing a base level of conditioning to increase the athlete’s tolerance for more intense training.

6. Periodization Periods Preparatory Period Hypertrophy/Endurance Phase Very low to moderate intensity (50-75% of the 1-repetition maximum [1RM]) and very high to moderate volume (three to six sets of 10-20 repetitions)

7. Periodization Periods Preparatory Period Basic Strength Phase High intensity (80-90% of the 1RM) and moderate volume (three to five sets of four to eight repetitions)

8. Periodization Periods Preparatory Period Strength/Power Phase High intensity (75-95% of the 1RM, depending on the exercise) and low volume (three to five sets of two to five repetitions)

9. Periodization Periods First Transition Period Between the preparatory and competitive periods to denote the break between high-volume training and high-intensity training

10. Periodization Periods Competition Period For peaking, athletes use very high intensity (=93% of the 1RM) and very low volume (one to three sets of one to three repetitions). For maintenance, athletes use moderate intensity (~80-85% of the 1RM) and moderate volume (about two to three sets of about six to eight repetitions).

11. Periodization Periods Second Transition Period (Active Rest) Between the competitive season and the next macrocycle’s preparatory period is the second transition period. The second transition (active rest) period consists of recreational activity that may not involve resis-tance training.

12. Table 19.1

13. Section Outline Applying Sport Seasons to the Periodization Periods Off-Season Preseason In-Season Postseason

14. Applying Sport Seasons to the Periodization Periods Off-Season Between the postseason and six weeks (although this varies greatly) prior to the first contest of the next year’s season

15. Applying Sport Seasons to the Periodization Periods Preseason Leads up to the first contest and commonly contains the late stages of the preparatory period and the first transition period

16. Applying Sport Seasons to the Periodization Periods In-Season Contains all the contests scheduled for that year, including any tournament games

17. Applying Sport Seasons to the Periodization Periods Postseason After the final contest Active or relative rest for the athlete before the start of the next year’s off-season or preparatory period

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