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Graphene-Based Polymer Composites and Their Applications. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013 Zachary Palmer, Kendall Wright, Charlie Chirino , Daniel Irvin. Composites of Graphene. Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013.

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graphene based polymer composites and their applications

Graphene-Based Polymer Composites and TheirApplications

Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013

Zachary Palmer, Kendall Wright, Charlie Chirino, Daniel Irvin

composites of graphene
Composites of Graphene

Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013

applications of graphene
Applications of Graphene

Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013

what is graphene
What is Graphene?
  • Hexagonal pattern of carbon atoms
  • One-atom thick sheet
  • Graphite is made up of flakes of graphene
    • Graphite

-Graphene

Figure http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene

Figure http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphite

special properties of graphene
Special Properties of Graphene
  • the quantum Hall effect (QHE)
  • high carrier mobility at room temperature (10,000 cm2)
  • large theoretical specific surface area (2630 m2)
  • good optical transparency (97.7%)
  • high Young’s modulus (1 Tpa)
  • excellent conductivity (3000–5000 Wm-1 K-1)

Figurehttps://www.google.com/search?q=young\'s+modulus

more properties
More Properties
  • Thermal Conductivity
    • Greater than that of Diamond and Carbon nanotubes
  • Mechanical Properties
    • High Young’s Modulus = Very Strong
    • Very lightweight
      • 1 square meter weighs .77mg

https://www.google.com/search?thermoconductivity

graphene production
Graphene Production
  • First produced using masking tape
    • press adhesive tape onto a chunk of graphite and pull: this peels off a thin flake of grey-black carbon
    • Then repeatedly stick the carbon-covered tape against itself and peel away: the carbon flake breaks up further into thin, faint fragments, each hundreds of micrometers across.
  • Exfoliating
  • Growing
  • Producing large quantities of Graphene is currently one issue faced by scientist

Figure: http://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

slide8

Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.htmlFigurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

slide9

Figure: Polymer-http://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

preparing the composites
Preparing the Composites
  • In Situ Intercalative Polymerization
  • Solution Intercalation
  • Melt Intercalation

Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013

list of composites
List of Composites

Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013

effects of graphene additives to polymers
Effects of Graphene Additives to Polymers
  • Polyaniline/Graphene
    • Increased capacitance
continued effects of adding graphene to common polymers
Continued: Effects of Adding Graphene to Common Polymers
  • Epoxy/Graphene-

Composite strengthens the thermal conductivity of the common adhesive Epoxy.

Bolsters abilities to be used as thermal interface

  • Poly Styrene/Graphene

Introduction of Graphene improves electrical conductivity and expands uses.

Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013

continued effects of adding graphene to common polymers1
Continued: Effects of Adding Graphene to Common Polymers
  • Poly Urethane/Graphene

Addition of Graphene into pure polyurethane increases conductivity by 10^5

  • Polycarbonate (PC)/Graphene

Increases tinsel strength and expands its uses in physically demanding applications

Increases electrial conductivity

Figure: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene

continued effects of adding graphene to common polymers2
Continued: Effects of Adding Graphene to Common Polymers

Nafion/Graphene Nanocomposite

  • Nafion is usually used in the production of electrodes. When combined with Graphene the sensitivity and stablity increases.

Figure:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956566311000571

into to applications
Into to Applications

Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013

electronic device applications
Electronic Device Applications
  • Graphene based polymers have been used in liquid crystal devices, light emitting diodes and electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells

Liquid Crystal Device

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/LED,_5mm.org

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/LED,_5mm.org

electronic device applications cont
Electronic Device Applications Cont.
  • Graphene/polymer composites have applications in transparent conducting films
  • These are in Solar cells, Touch screens and flat panel display

Figure: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/LED,_5mm,_green_(en).svg/220px-LED,_5mm,_green_(en).svg.png

application in energy storage
Application in Energy Storage
  • Green Cells
  • by combining graphene with two promising polymer cathode materials, poly-(anthraquinonyl sulfide) and polyimide researchers have improved the efficiency of lithium batteries

Figure: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/LED,_5mm,_green_(en).svg/220px-LED,_5mm,_green_(en).svg.png

application in energy storage1
Application in Energy Storage
  • Supercapacitor or Ultracapacitor
  • Graphene derivatives and conducting polymers are combined and used as the hybrid type of super capacitor
  • The added graphene gives astounding energy density to these ultracapacitors.

Graphene coated silicon disk

Figure: CNX.org/1feinbke/34mnbkd

into to applications as sensors
Into to Applications as sensors

Basic Bio Sensor

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene_nanoribbons

Figure: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene_nanoribbons

application in sensors
Application in Sensors
  • Graphene can be used in multiple kinds of sensors
    • pH
    • Pressure
    • Temperature

Studies show exceptional sensitivity when graphene is employed

Figure: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene

biomedical applications
Biomedical Applications
  • Graphene was first used in medical applications in 2008.
  • Graphene based nanomaterials have been used in drug delivery and cancer therapy just to name a few

Figure http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene

use in cancer therapy
Use in Cancer Therapy
  • Toxicity of nanomaterials deployed for cancer treatment is a major dilemma facing advancement.
  • PEG-Funtionalizationgraphenenanomaterials have negligible in vitro toxicity which deployed.

Figure: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/LED,_5mm,_green_(en).svg/220px-LED,_5mm,_green_(en).svg.png

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites represent one of the most technologically promising developments to emerge from the interface of graphene-based materials.
  • There are many engineering challenges that still remain, but with proper research we can utilize graphene materials to their full potential.
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