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Graphene-Based Polymer Composites and Their Applications. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013 Zachary Palmer, Kendall Wright, Charlie Chirino , Daniel Irvin. Composites of Graphene. Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013.

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Graphene based polymer composites and their applications

Graphene-Based Polymer Composites and TheirApplications

Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013

Zachary Palmer, Kendall Wright, Charlie Chirino, Daniel Irvin


Composites of graphene
Composites of Graphene

Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013


Applications of graphene
Applications of Graphene

Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013


What is graphene
What is Graphene?

  • Hexagonal pattern of carbon atoms

  • One-atom thick sheet

  • Graphite is made up of flakes of graphene

    • Graphite

-Graphene

Figure http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene

Figure http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphite


Special properties of graphene
Special Properties of Graphene

  • the quantum Hall effect (QHE)

  • high carrier mobility at room temperature (10,000 cm2)

  • large theoretical specific surface area (2630 m2)

  • good optical transparency (97.7%)

  • high Young’s modulus (1 Tpa)

  • excellent conductivity (3000–5000 Wm-1 K-1)

Figurehttps://www.google.com/search?q=young's+modulus


More properties
More Properties

  • Thermal Conductivity

    • Greater than that of Diamond and Carbon nanotubes

  • Mechanical Properties

    • High Young’s Modulus = Very Strong

    • Very lightweight

      • 1 square meter weighs .77mg

https://www.google.com/search?thermoconductivity


Graphene production
Graphene Production

  • First produced using masking tape

    • press adhesive tape onto a chunk of graphite and pull: this peels off a thin flake of grey-black carbon

    • Then repeatedly stick the carbon-covered tape against itself and peel away: the carbon flake breaks up further into thin, faint fragments, each hundreds of micrometers across.

  • Exfoliating

  • Growing

  • Producing large quantities of Graphene is currently one issue faced by scientist

Figure: http://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html


Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.htmlFigurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html


Figure: Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.htmlPolymer-http://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html


Preparing the composites
Preparing the Composites Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

  • In Situ Intercalative Polymerization

  • Solution Intercalation

  • Melt Intercalation

Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013


List of composites
List of CompositesFigurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013


Effects of graphene additives to polymers
Effects of Graphene Additives to PolymersFigurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

  • Polyaniline/Graphene

    • Increased capacitance


Continued effects of adding graphene to common polymers
Continued: Effects of Adding Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.htmlGraphene to Common Polymers

  • Epoxy/Graphene-

    Composite strengthens the thermal conductivity of the common adhesive Epoxy.

    Bolsters abilities to be used as thermal interface

  • Poly Styrene/Graphene

    Introduction of Graphene improves electrical conductivity and expands uses.

Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013


Continued effects of adding graphene to common polymers1
Continued: Effects of Adding Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.htmlGraphene to Common Polymers

  • Poly Urethane/Graphene

    Addition of Graphene into pure polyurethane increases conductivity by 10^5

  • Polycarbonate (PC)/Graphene

    Increases tinsel strength and expands its uses in physically demanding applications

    Increases electrial conductivity

Figure: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene


Continued effects of adding graphene to common polymers2
Continued: Effects of Adding Graphene to Common Polymers Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

Nafion/Graphene Nanocomposite

  • Nafion is usually used in the production of electrodes. When combined with Graphene the sensitivity and stablity increases.

Figure:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956566311000571


Into to applications
Into to Applications Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

Figure: Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52: 319–331, 2013


Electronic device applications
Electronic Device Applications Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

  • Graphene based polymers have been used in liquid crystal devices, light emitting diodes and electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells

Liquid Crystal Device

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/LED,_5mm.org

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/LED,_5mm.org


Electronic device applications cont
Electronic Device Applications Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.htmlCont.

  • Graphene/polymer composites have applications in transparent conducting films

  • These are in Solar cells, Touch screens and flat panel display

Figure: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/LED,_5mm,_green_(en).svg/220px-LED,_5mm,_green_(en).svg.png


Application in energy storage
Application in Energy StorageFigurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

  • Green Cells

  • by combining graphene with two promising polymer cathode materials, poly-(anthraquinonyl sulfide) and polyimide researchers have improved the efficiency of lithium batteries

Figure: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/LED,_5mm,_green_(en).svg/220px-LED,_5mm,_green_(en).svg.png


Application in energy storage1
Application in Energy StorageFigurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

  • Supercapacitor or Ultracapacitor

  • Graphene derivatives and conducting polymers are combined and used as the hybrid type of super capacitor

  • The added graphene gives astounding energy density to these ultracapacitors.

Graphene coated silicon disk

Figure: CNX.org/1feinbke/34mnbkd


Into to applications as sensors
Into to Applications as sensors Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

Basic Bio Sensor

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene_nanoribbons

Figure: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene_nanoribbons


Application in sensors
Application in SensorsFigurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

  • Graphene can be used in multiple kinds of sensors

    • pH

    • Pressure

    • Temperature

      Studies show exceptional sensitivity when graphene is employed

Figure: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene


Biomedical applications
Biomedical Applications Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

  • Graphene was first used in medical applications in 2008.

  • Graphene based nanomaterials have been used in drug delivery and cancer therapy just to name a few

Figure http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene


Use in cancer therapy
Use in Cancer Therapy Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

  • Toxicity of nanomaterials deployed for cancer treatment is a major dilemma facing advancement.

  • PEG-Funtionalizationgraphenenanomaterials have negligible in vitro toxicity which deployed.

Figure: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/LED,_5mm,_green_(en).svg/220px-LED,_5mm,_green_(en).svg.png


Conclusion
Conclusion Figurehttp://www.nature.com.lib-ezproxy.tamu.edu:2048/nature/journal/v483/n7389_supp/full/483S32a.html

  • Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites represent one of the most technologically promising developments to emerge from the interface of graphene-based materials.

  • There are many engineering challenges that still remain, but with proper research we can utilize graphene materials to their full potential.


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