# Energy Budget - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Energy Budget. The amount of energy arriving at the Earth and leaving the Earth must be in balance . If more energy arrives than leaves, the Earth will warm up over time. Types of Energy Transfer. Radiation  energy transfer through a vacuum

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Energy Budget

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### Energy Budget

• The amount of energy arriving at the Earth and leaving the Earth must be in balance.

• If more energy arrivesthan leaves, the Earth will warm up over time.

### Types of Energy Transfer

• Radiation  energy transfer through a vacuum

• Conduction  Energy transfer by direct contact of particles

• Convection  Energy Transfer through the movement of particles from one location to another

• energy from the sun is radiatedto the Earth.

• Short-wavesolar radiation arrives from the sun and heats the land or water.

• Long waveinfra-red radiation from the ground heats the air above it

### Conduction

• Very little effect on climate as conduction involves only shortdistance energy transfers

### Convection

• Convection currents are caused by warm, less dense air risingand cooler, more dense air falling

• On the ground, convection currents are seen as winds

• On a global scale, convection currents move energyfrom the equator towards the poles

### Ocean Convection Currents

• Note here the movement is NOT just about moving heatfrom the Equator to the Poles

• Europeis most affected by these currents.

Ayr, Scotland

55oN latitude line

Cape Henrietta Maria

Both are on the coast, both are at 55oN

Do they have a similar climate?

Cape Henrietta Maria in May

 notice the ice!

Ayr, Scotland in May

 notice the palm trees!

### Which type of Energy Transfer will be influenced by human activities?

• Do human activities affect radiationfrom the sun?

• Do human activities affect conductionthrough materials?

• Do human activities affect convectionswinds?

• Noto all of the above!

• So how might humans affect climate?

We’ll talk about human effects tomorrow!