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African Decolonization. End of WWII to Present. Beginnings of Decolonization. At the end of WWII only a few nations were independent: Liberia: founded in 1822 as a haven for freed slaves S. Africa: granted self-government in 1910, controlled by white minority Egypt: 1922

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African decolonization

African Decolonization

End of WWII to Present


Beginnings of decolonization
Beginnings of Decolonization

  • At the end of WWII only a few nations were independent:

    • Liberia: founded in 1822 as a haven for freed slaves

    • S. Africa: granted self-government in 1910, controlled by white minority

    • Egypt: 1922

    • Ethiopia: taken in 1936 by Italy, Freed in 1945 (acquired Eritrea, later won its freedom)

  • After these, the Arab and Berber nations of N. Africa gained their freedom (Libya, Sudan, Morocco, and Tunisia)

  • One by one, Britain gave independence to its colonies, ending with Zimbabwe in 1980.

  • Other European nations gradually gave up their colonies


Problems in the african nations
Problems in the African Nations

  • Unity

    • inherited borders drawn up by imperial powers, split ethnic groups and tribes

  • Finding Professionals

    • before independence Europeans dominated professions

    • few Africans had training as educators, doctors, scientists, engineers, etc…

  • Maintaining Government:

    • When independence came, Africans had little experience running a government


More problems in african nations
More Problems in African Nations

  • Living Standards

    • most in poverty, lack capital for development

    • Foreign investors deterred by political instability

  • Disease

    • AIDS ravaging Southern Africa, far greater percentage of Africans infected than other areas of the world

  • African Unity

    • Haile Selassie believed that the differences (linguistic, racial, economic, and political) too vast and recommended a loose organization of nations

    • OAU (Organization of African Unity)


Goals of oau
Goals of OAU

  • Loose Confederation

    • Heads of state meet once a year

    • Council meets every 6 months

    • Commission of Mediation and Conciliation to settle inter-African disputes

  • African cooperation

    • Foreign policy, defense, economics, education

  • Liberation of all African territories still under foreign rule

    • Worked to end white rule in S. Africa


South africa brief history
South Africa: Brief History

  • 1815 Boers Resent British

    • Great Trek; found Orange Free State and Transvaal

    • Gold Discovered

  • 1899 Rhodes tries to annex two free states, begins Boer War

  • 1910 S. Africa granted self-government from British, still a dominion

    • Limited voting and office holding to whites

  • 1960 S. Africa ceases to recognize British monarch, becomes a republic


Population
Population

  • 43 million

  • 75% Black, Bantu groups

  • 14% White, Afrikaners (Dutch) outnumber British 3 to 2

  • 9% mixed ancestry

  • 3% Asian (Indian)

  • 11 official languages


Apartheid
Apartheid

  • 1948-1994 National party (Afrikaner) governed

    • System of Apartheid

      • Blacks must carry i.d. cards

      • reside in designated sections called black townships

      • Had to travel long distances to jobs

      • Black males from other countries brought in to work mines

        • Reside in dormitories, see families only on periodic visits home

      • Blacks have no vote and no say in Government

    • Bantustans

      • National party imposed “separate development” for racial groups

      • 1959: Set aside 13% of rural area for Black homelands called Bantustans; few resources and little farmland

      • 1976 granted independence to 4 Bantustans


Resistance
Resistance

  • African National Congress created in 1912 to protest apartheid

  • 1960 government banned ANC, Nelson Mandela and other ANC leaders organized an underground army

    • Mandela arrested in ’62 spent 27 years in jail

  • Nations around the world condemned apartheid, the UN

    • Deprived SA of its seat in the General Assembly

    • Banned arms sales to SA

    • Economic sanctions


Ending apartheid
Ending Apartheid

  • 1989 President F. W. de Klerk began phasing out apartheid

    • Lifted bans on ANC

    • 1990 Released Mandela and began releasing 3000 political prisoners

    • Revoked laws banning black property ownership in white areas

    • 1991 Allowed black students to go to white schools

  • 1991 UN began lifting sanctions

  • 1993 SA’s government for the first time accepted non-whites as members of the cabinet

  • 1994 Mandela’s ANC won 60% of vote, Mandela became first black president


Problems still facing south africa
Problems still facing South Africa

  • Whites still hold most wealth

  • Bitter racial and ethnic disputes still divide the people

  • 1999 Thabo Mbeki succeeded Mandela (80 year old Mandela did not run)


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