Why We Love Streams.... . . Goals. Evaluate the impacts altered stream systems have on instream biota-Impact on human interestsDetermine restoration focuses that will increase instream biota-Minimize impact on other human needs. Objectives. -Identify causes of stream alteration-Identify the i
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The Effects of River Alteration and Restoration on
Instream Biota and Human Needs
By Ashley Koetsier, Kaylee Pollander,
Lee Simard, Cole Talbot, and Zack Theberge
Evaluate the impacts altered stream systems have on instream biota
-Impact on human interests
Determine restoration focuses that will increase instream biota
-Minimize impact on other human needs
-Identify causes of stream alteration
-Identify the impacts different types of stream alteration has on instream biota
-Identify what impacts the loss of instream biota have on humans
-Identify possible focuses of restoration that will benefit instream biota without negatively affecting human needs
Must follow laws:
Balance with Sustainability Model
People hear what they want to hear
Intellectual Quotient vs. Emotional Quotient
People work to pay the mortgage
Less expensive to not repair
Few cases of abandonment
Let the kid represent biota and detritus...
Impacts of altered streams:
-Changes in water temperature
-Loss of physical
structure and habitat
-Loss of food sources
- Higher Retention
- Increased Habitat
For both fish and macro-invertebrates
- Increased Aesthetics
- Undisturbed complexity
Image from Brown, Inc. 2010
-Median cost $45,000/project
-Over $1 billion spent annually on stream restoration
(Bernhardt et al. 2005)
-Is it worth it?
-Allochthonous inputs main nutrient source in most small temperate forested streams
-Little algal or macrophyte growth
-Essential for breaking down inputs and releasing nutrients and energy downstream
-Restoring streams increases downstream productivity
Benefits of Restoration:
Economic, Social, Environmental:
-License sales, tackle,
bait, gas, food,
-Return marine nutrients inland
Moyle et al. 2011 (EPA.gov)
-Specific restoration objectives vary by situation
-A manager can choose from several different overarching focuses for restoration, each with their own pros and cons
-Evaluate each to decide which focus best meets our endpoint
-Results dependent on system
-Minimally degraded system could result in natural recovery
-Less likely to recover in a highly degraded system
-Is the stressor removed?
-Eg. Removal of woody debris to accelerate drainage from an agricultural field
-Addresses all environmental needs
-Surrounding landscape would be restored as well
-Some social and economic needs met
-Unrealistic in most cases to remove all human influences
-May cause loss to infrastructure
-Social circle addressed
-Economic circle possibly addressed
-Protect infrastructure, human investments
-Fails to address environmental circle
-Natural processes not enhanced
-Potentially cost more in the long run?
-Provides foundation for natural processes to begin occurring around
-Can be designed to meet human needs, both social and economic
-More costly to undertake
-May not include all necessary factors for processes to begin
-Eg. Allochthonous inputs, water temperature and quality
Focus on Instream Habitat Restoration
-Would ensure overall ecological integrity
-Stressors would be removed from system
-Can be designed to meet human needs, both social and economical
-More costly to undertake
-Have to have understanding of stream processes
-May sacrifice some natural conditions to meet human needs
Focus on restoration of instream biota
-Ensures ecological integrity
-Can be easily adapted to meet human needs
-Can be assessed quantitatively
-Balances all three circles
In-stream biota reflects...
-Dynamic changes over time
-Non-point source stressors
We would like to thank Dr. William Bowden for his inspiring wisdom and beautiful mustache. Also, we would like to show our gratitude to Philip Halteman, who motivated us with his kind words and chic corduroys. We thank Todd Menees for the interview that helped to further our knowledge on stream restoration around the state of Vermont.
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