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Life Science Mr. Galloway. Chapters 15-16 Human Biology & Health Bones, Muscles, Skin, Food, Digestion. Recommended Websites: Body Organization & Homeostasis Levels of Organization:. Non-living atoms and molecules . . .

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Life Science

Mr. Galloway

Chapters 15-16

Human Biology & Health

Bones, Muscles, Skin, Food, Digestion

Recommended Websites:

Body organization homeostasis levels of organization
Body Organization & HomeostasisLevels of Organization:

  • Non-living atoms and molecules . . .

  • Cells (basic unit of life – remember “Biogenesis”)

  • Tissues (are groups of similar cells; four types)

  • Organs (are composed of different tissue types)

  • Organ Systems (groups of organs working together)- 11 organ systems

  • Homeostasis (process to maintain internal stability)

  • Stress (= your reaction to difficult events)- Stress can upset homeostasis of the body

Animal cells
Animal Cells

  • Law of “Biogenesis” = life only from life

    • So our living God is the source of living cells.

  • Cell Membrane = outside cell boundary

  • Nucleus = control center (computer of the cell)

  • Cytoplasm = area between the membrane and the nucleus.


  • A tissue is a group of similar cells that perform the same function.

  • Human bodies have four basic tissue types:

    • Muscle Tissues – contract to move the body parts

    • Nerve Tissues – communicate between body & brain

    • Connective Tissue – supports body (skeleton, fat, etc.)

    • Epithelial Tissue – covers the body inside and outside

      • Skin

      • Lining of your digestive tract, etc……….

Organs and organ systems
Organs and Organ Systems

  • Organ = a structure composed of different kinds of tissues, which performs a specific job.

    • Examples (heart, stomach, lungs, etc. ….)

  • Organ System = group of organs working together to perform a major function.

    • Eleven organ systems:- Skeletal (support, protection) - Muscular (movement)- Skin (protects, regulates) - Digestive (food prep)

      - Circulatory (blood flow) - Respiratory (breathing)- Excretory (waste removal) - Immune (disease) - Nervous (feel, think, act) - Endocrine (hormones) - Reproductive (offspring)

Skeletal system
Skeletal System

  • 206 human bones

  • Five Functions:

    • Shape/Support

    • Movement

    • Protection of organs

    • Production of blood

    • Storage of materials

  • Vertebrae = 26back bones

Bones both living and strong
Bones – both living and strong

  • Bone Strength - stronger than concrete or granite, yet lighter than both

  • Bone Growth – bone cells grow and heal

  • Bone Structure – outer membrane, compact bone, spongy bone, marrow, nerves, & blood vessels

    • Marrow Types – Two types - Red makes blood cells * Child has red marrow in most of the bones * Teens only at femur ends, skull, hips, sternum) - Yellow stores fat cells for energy reserves

  • Bone Formation –infants have flexible cartilage, which becomes bone, as calcium makes it stiffer.Adults have cartilage in ears, nose, etc.

  • Joints = where two bones join. (Ligaments hold bones together)

    • Immovable Joints = skull joints, and rib/sternum

    • Movable = many types (hinge, pivot, gliding, ball/socket)

  • Bone Care = good diet and exercise

    • Exercise actually stimulates bone growth

    • Osteoporosis is a disease caused by a loss of the mineral calcium. The bones become soft and brittle.


  • Ball & Socket

  • Hinge

  • Pivot

  • Gliding



Muscular system 600 muscles
Muscular System – 600 muscles

  • Muscle Action – only contract to move the body

    • Involuntary – automatic and not consciously controlled(heart, breathing, digestion, etc.)

    • Voluntary – under your control (arms, legs, mouth, etc.)

  • Types of Muscle (Three)

    • Skeletal – (voluntary) striated & attached to bone by a tendon

    • Smooth – (involuntary) inside organs, blood vessels

    • Cardiac – (involuntary) striated, yet does not get tired

Skeletal Muscles work in pairs since they can only contract, not extend.

Skin a tough covering
Skin – A Tough Covering

  • Prevents loss of water

  • Protects from injury and infection

  • Regulates body temperature (sweat)

  • Eliminates wastes (sweat)

  • Gathers information from environment (senses)

  • Produces vitamin D

Structure of the skin
Structure of the Skin

  • Epidermis = outermost layer

    • Cells on the surface are dead (a thick layer)

    • This dead layer is the primary protection layer

    • Deeper into the epidermis the cells are alive

    • Some produce “melanin” (a pigment – tan)

  • Dermis = layer below epidermis & above fat.

    • Pores – openings for sweat from sweat glands

    • Follicles – structures that grow hair

    • Hair that you see is dead cells

    • Oil is produced to waterproof the hair and moisten skin

Caring for your skin
Caring for Your Skin

  • Eat right

  • Drink enough water

  • Limit exposure to the sun

    • Too much sun causes wrinkles and cancer

    • Always use sun screen!!!

  • Keep your skin clean and dry

    • Wet and dirty skin lets bacteria and fungi grow

    • This helps reduce acne, but acne is NOT caused by dirty skin.

Food and digestion
Food and Digestion

  • Calorie = amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius.

  • Food and Energy

    • Nutrients = substances in food that provide raw materials and energy the body needs

    • Six Nutrient Types:

      • Carbohydrates

      • Fats

      • Proteins

      • Vitamins

      • Minerals

      • Water


  • Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.

  • One gram of carbs provides four Calories

  • Two groups of carbohydrates

    • Simple = sugars like glucose

    • Complex = many molecules of sugars linked together in a chain, like starches, fiber.

      • Starches can be broken down to provide energy

      • Fiber cannot be broken down and is not a nutrient, but helps the digestive system function


  • Fats are high-energy nutrients made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.

  • Two Classes of Fats:

    • Unsaturated Fats = liquid at room temp., like oils.

    • Saturated Fats = solid at room temp., animal fat.

      • Cholesterol is a waxy, fatlike substance found only in animal products.

      • Your liver makes all the cholesterol we need, so getting extra from food is not needed and can be harmful.


  • Proteins are nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

    • Amino Acids together make up protein molecules.

    • There are about 20 amino acids.

    • Thousands of proteins can be made by arranging the chains of amino acids differently.

  • Complete and Incomplete Proteins

    • Complete = proteins from animal sources like meat & eggs, which contain all the essential amino acids we need.

    • Incomplete = proteins from plant sources, which do not have all the amino acids we need.


  • Vitamins act as helper molecules in many chemical reactions.

  • Scurvy = disease caused by a lack of vitamin C, and was a terrible problem for sailors in the 1700s, until a Scottish doctor (James Lind) discovered it was a diet problem.

  • Small amounts of many different kinds of vitamins are needed by your body.

  • Two Types of Vitamins

    • Fat-soluble (A, D, E, K)

    • Water-soluble Vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, Biotin, Folic Acid, Pantothenic Acid, C)

Be able to identify on a similar diagram, all of these parts except the gallbladder and the pancreas.

Beginning of digestion
Beginning of Digestion

  • Digestion = process of breaking down food into small nutrient molecules.

  • Absorption = process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the intestines into the blood.

  • Elimination = process of removing waste byproducts from the body.

The mouth
The Mouth

  • Teeth – incisors, canines, premolars, molars

  • Saliva – watery solution for mechanical and chemical breakdown of food

    • Mechanical Digestion = teeth cut and crush food, saliva mixes and moistens food

    • Chemical Digestion = breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones

      • Starch to sugars, or proteins into amino acids

      • Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions.(= catalysts in living organisms)

The esophagus 10 seconds
The Esophagus – 10 seconds

  • Esophagus = a muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach

  • Epiglottis = a flap of tissue that seals off you windpipe, so food won’t enter it.

  • Mucus = thick slippery substance lining the esophagus, which makes food slide down easier.

  • Peristalsis = involuntary waves of muscle contraction that squeeze the food down the esophagus

The stomach
The Stomach

  • Stomach = a J-shaped muscular pouch which holds all the food you swallow. Average capacity = 2 liters.

  • Mechanical and Chemical ways to break food down.

    • Food stays in the stomach until food is in liquid form.

    • Mechanically it squeezes and mashes and mixes food.

    • Chemically it adds hydrochloric acid and pepsin (enzyme).

      • The acid helps the enzyme reaction work better and kills germs

      • Mucus lining the stomach wall protects you from the acid.

Final digestion and absorption
Final Digestion and Absorption

  • Small Intestine is about 6 meters (18 feet long)

    • Most of chemical digestion and absorption occurs here

    • Lots of enzymes and secretions coming from three organs:

      • Small Intestine wall

      • Liver – largest and heaviest of internal organs

        • Bile is not an enzyme, so it works like soap to break down fats.

        • Gallbladder is a storage organ for the bile

      • Pancreas – produces many enzymes for food breakdown.

    • Absorption in the small intestine

      • Villi = (villus is singular) are millions of tiny finger-shaped structures lining the intestine to increase surface area.

The large intestine
The Large Intestine

  • It is the last section of the digestive system.

  • About 1.5 meters (4 feet) long

  • Water is absorbed into the blood stream.

  • The left over material is readied for elimination.

  • Rectum = end section of the large intestine, where waste is compressed into a solid form.

  • Anus = a muscular opening at the end of the rectum.