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Manure management facilities on farms and their relevance to efficient nutrient use. Bernard Hyde & Owen, T. Carton Teagasc, Johnstown Castle The Fertilizer Association of Ireland Winter Scientific Meeting 25 th November 2005 Faculty of Agriculture, University College Dublin. Manure.

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Manure management facilities on farms and their relevance to efficient nutrient use

Bernard Hyde & Owen, T. Carton

Teagasc, Johnstown Castle

The Fertilizer Association of Ireland

Winter Scientific Meeting 25th November 2005

Faculty of Agriculture, University College Dublin


Manure

  • 2003 - 6.3 million animals = 37 million tonnes

  • Slurry = 29.3 million tonnes

  • Solid = 7.7 million tonnes

  • Dairy cows ~ 28% of slurry & ~ 7% of solid manure


Topic – facilities & utilisation

  • Manure management facilities

    • Storage

    • Spreading date

    • Spreading method

  • Nutrient efficiency

    • Manure type

    • N, P & K

  • Cost vs. nutrient value


Requirements for efficient nutrient use

  • NMP

  • Changing slurry spreading date

  • Changing slurry spreading method

  • Storage vs. spreading date?

  • Cost benefit?


Efficient manure nutrient use


NMP

  • Soil

  • Manure

  • Crop demand

  • Code of Practice

    • Rate

    • Date

    • Method


Current utilisation?

  • Indicators?

  • FUS (2002 & 2005)

    • Indications of N, P & K overuse

      • Fert. input = Fert. required

      • Slurry?

  • Farm Facilities Survey (2003) – crop & timing of application


Topic – facilities & utilisation

  • Manure management facilities

    • Storage

    • Spreading date

    • Spreading method


Timing of slurry application & % of total


Timing of slurry application & % of total


Timing of slurry application & % of total


Timing of slurry application

?


Timing of slurry application

WHY ?

?


Efficient manure nutrient use


Efficient manure nutrient use


Efficient manure nutrient use


Storage

  • Spreading date – 4% in winter

  • Estimated storage deficits – national basis

    • 21% for 16 week storage

    • 31% for 22 week storage

  • Action Programme

    • Ban on winter spreading

    • Required minimum slurry storage

  • Reconcile deficit and date?


Landspreading - N efficiency

  • N efficiency – key issue

  • Spreading date & rate

    • Soil/weather conditions

  • Contamination

    • Spreading date

  • Spreader availability

    • Farmer owned

    • Contractor


Slurry spreading opportunitiesDistribution of the number of days on which soils have a soil moisture deficit in excess of 10 mm. (Schulte et al., in press)


Silage contamination ?

  • End March/early April

  • Crop – too far advanced

  • Risk of poor fermentation


Spreader availability

  • C.S.O. – Census of Ag. 2000

  • 124, 108 livestock farms (< 5 to >= 100 ha)

  • 72, 368 livestock farms (20 to >= 100 ha)

  • 31, 046 farms own or share slurry tankers

  • 35, 281 farms hire or borrow slurry tankers

  • Farm Facilities Survey


Farm Fragmentation

27% consist of 1 holding

31% have 4 + fragments


Farm Fragmentation – distance (km)

Farm Fragmentation

Fragment Distance


Topic – facilities & utilisation

  • Nutrient efficiency


Nutrient availability

* Dry matter content varies widely and this determines the nutrient contents


N availability in slurry

(Ammonium – N)

Organic - N

Inorganic - N


Spring

NH3

Crop available

NH3

Ammonium - N

Summer


Fertiliser N for silage compared to slurry N


Fertiliser N for silage compared to slurry N

?


Current utilisation vs. available N

  • Spreading method

  • Spreading date

  • Soil/weather conditions


=


=

=


NH3

=

=


NH3

=

NH3

NH3

NH3

=


Efficient manure nutrient use


Advantages of trailing shoe application

  • NH3 emission reduced

  • Recovery of total N ~ 40 - 50%

  • Slurry can be applied to taller crops

  • Slurry applied to soil surface – contamination ?

  • Increased opportunity for spring application

  • Heavier soils in wetter areas

  • Teagasc research


Fertiliser N for silage compared to slurry N

?


Organic N

  • Inorganic/organic = 50/50

  • Organic material/solid fraction

  • Currently not considered as a reliable N source

  • Mineralization

  • 60 kg N/ha (33t/ha) for slurry

  • Teagasc research


Topic – facilities & utilisation

  • Cost vs. nutrient value


Economic value of slurry N (€ million)


Economic value of slurry N (€ million)

88%

44%

22%

6%


Economic value of slurry N (€ million)

€ 67.2


Economic value of slurry N (€ million)

€ 67.2

€ 3.8


Economic value of slurry N (€ million)

€ 67.2

€ 14.8

€ 3.8


Economic value of slurry N (€ million)

€ 67.2

€ 29.5

€ 14.8

€ 3.8


Economic value of slurry N (€ million)

€ 67.2

€ 59.1

€ 29.5

€ 14.8

€ 3.8


Economic value (million €) of slurry


Economic value (million €) of slurry

€ 83.9 million


Economic value (million €) of slurry

€ 98.7 million


Economic value (million €) of slurry

€ 128.1 million


Summary

  • 29.3 million tonnes slurry

  • Current utilisation

  • Key issues - storage & landspreading

  • Nutrient availability – N efficiency

  • Spreading methodology – conventional vs ts

  • Economic value of slurry - €128 million


Conclusions

  • Manure/slurry is a valuable resource

  • Short-term

    • Change application timing from summer/autumn to spring

    • Change spreading method

    • Available N in slurry a/c’s ~ 45% of purchased fert. N

  • Long-term

    • Increase nutrient efficiency

    • Organic N

  • Research


Efficient manure nutrient use


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