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DIVIDED BY WAR. 1861-1865. THE SECESSION CRISIS. LINCOLN’S ELECTION LEADS SO. CAROLINA TO SECEDE DEC. 20TH 1860 QUESTION: WOULD OTHER STATES FOLLOW?. THE CRITTENDEN COMPROMISE DEC. 1860. JOHN CRITTENDEN (KY) PROPOSES A COMPROMISE A SERIES OF CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS.

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Divided by war

DIVIDED BY WAR

1861-1865


The secession crisis
THE SECESSION CRISIS

  • LINCOLN’S ELECTION LEADS SO. CAROLINA TO SECEDE

  • DEC. 20TH 1860

  • QUESTION: WOULD OTHER STATES FOLLOW?


The crittenden compromise dec 1860
THE CRITTENDEN COMPROMISE DEC. 1860

  • JOHN CRITTENDEN (KY) PROPOSES A COMPROMISE

  • A SERIES OF CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS.

  • HOPES TO CONVINCE SOUTH NOT TO LEAVE.


The terms of the compromise
THE TERMS OF THE COMPROMISE

  • RESTORE THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE LINE 36,30

  • UNAMENDABLE AMENDMENT TO GUARANTEE SLAVERY WHERE IT EXISTS.

  • A SPECIAL COMMITTEE FORMED TO WORK OUT THE DEAL.


Republicans lincoln reject the compromise
REPUBLICANS & LINCOLN REJECT THE COMPROMISE.

  • IT WOULD VIOLATE THE REPUBLICAN PLATFORM.

  • COMPROMISE IS DEFEATED IN COMMITTEE

  • LAST HOPE OF AVOIDING WAR IS GONE.


Six more states secede
SIX MORE STATES SECEDE

  • MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX

  • BEFORE LINCOLN IS INAUGURATED.

  • FEB. 18TH, 1861 THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA

  • JEFFERSON DAVIS ELECTED PRESIDENT.


President buchanan does nothing
PRESIDENT BUCHANAN DOES NOTHING.

  • HE WAS A “LAME DUCK” WAITING TO LEAVE OFFICE.


Lincoln is inaugurated march 1861
LINCOLN IS INAUGURATED MARCH 1861

  • INAUGURAL ADDRESS TRIES TO REASSURE THE SOUTH.

  • “I HAVE NO POWER OR DESIRE TO END SLAVERY WHERE IT EXISTS”

  • LAYS RESPONSIBILITY FOR STARTING WAR W/ SOUTH


Fort sumter charleston so carolina
FORT SUMTER CHARLESTON, SO CAROLINA

  • MAJOR ANDERSON IN COMMAND OF THE FORT.

  • LINCOLN TRIES TO SEND SUPPLIES.

  • 4:30 AM APRIL 12, 1861 GEN. BEAUREGARD OPENS FIRE.

  • NO ONE KILLED.


Lincoln calls for 75 000 volunteers
LINCOLN CALLS FOR 75,000 VOLUNTEERS.

  • VA, AR., TN, N.C. JOIN THE CONFEDERACY

  • THE BORDER STATES (DE, MD, KY, & MO) REMAIN IN UNION

    • VITAL TO UNION SUCCESS


MORE…

  • LINCOLN: “I HOPE GOD IS ON OUR SIDE, BUT I MUST HAVE KENTUCKY.”

  • LINCOLN MOVES TO HOLD MARYLAND - SUSPENDS HABEAS CORPUS

  • KENTUCKY REMAINS LOYAL

    • AS DO THE REST OF THE BORDER STATES


The southern position
The Southern Position

  • CONFIDENT OF VICTORY

  • FIGHTING FOR INDEPENDENCE, NOT SLAVERY.

  • FIGHTING FROM DEFENSIVE POSITION - ALWAYS DESIREABLE

  • BELIEVED YANKS WERE WEAK & WOULD QUIT


The northern position
THE NORTHERN POSITION

  • CONFIDENT OF VICTORY

  • NORTH HAD POPULATION AND MATERIAL ADVANTAGE

  • FIGHTING TO PRESERVE THE UNION - THE NOBLE CAUSE

  • THOUGHT SECESSIONISTS WERE TREASONOUS REBELS


The military balance sheet
THE MILITARY BALANCE SHEET.

  • SOUTHERN MILITARY TRADITION

  • SOUTHERNERS HIGHLY MOTIVATED

  • HAD BEST OFFICERS AT START OF THE WAR.

  • FIGHTING ON HOME GROUND.


More the north
MORE… THE NORTH

  • LARGER POPULATION

    • 4X AS MANY TROOPS

  • MORE FACTORIES & SUPPLIES

  • MOST RAILROADS IN THE NORTH

  • A NAVY TO BLOCKADE THE SOUTH

    • SCOTT’S ANACONDA PLAN CALLED FOR CONSTRICTING THE CONFEDERACY TO DEATH


Mobilization call to arms
MobilizationCall to Arms


Mobilization supplies armaments
MobilizationSupplies & Armaments


Civil leaders president lincoln
CIVIL LEADERS: PRESIDENT LINCOLN

  • LINCOLN HAD NO SIGNIFICANT MILITARY EXPERIENCE

  • NOT RESPECTED BY MANY

  • CLEVER & WISE POLITICIAN


Politics leadership government
Politics & Leadership Government

Confederate President Jefferson Davis

Vice President Alexander Stephens

VS

Union President Abraham Lincoln

Vice President Andrew Johnson


Jefferson davis
JEFFERSON DAVIS

  • POLITICAL EXPERIENCE

  • WEST POINT GRAD, VETERAN OF MEXICAN WAR.

  • SEC OF WAR

  • DAVIS WAS A WEAK LEADER

    • FURTHER WEAKENED BY GENERAL FEAR OF CENTRALIZED POWER IN SOUTH


Politics leadership key military figures
Politics & Leadership Key Military Figures

Union leader of all armies

Lt. General Ulysses S. Grant

VS

Confederate leader of all armies

General Robert E. Lee


Mobilizing for war
MOBILIZING FOR WAR

  • BOTH SIDES RELY ON VOLUNTEERS

  • UNION PAYS BOUNTIES

  • “BOUNTY JUMPING” A PROBLEM

  • 1863 CONGRESS PASSES A DRAFT

    • MEN 20 TO 45


MORE…

  • DRAFT WAS UNFAIR.

  • $300 COULD BUY EXEMPTION

  • YOU COULD HIRE A SUBSTITUTE.

  • SOUTH PASSED DRAFT IN 1862

    • 18 TO 45 YEARS OLD.

  • LARGE SLAVE OWNERS EXEMPT.


Funding the war
FUNDING THE WAR

  • SOUTH SOLD BONDS

    • 40% OF WAR COSTS

  • REST PAID BY PRINTING MONEY

  • CAUSED RUNAWAY INFLATION.

  • NORTH PASSED INCOME TAX

  • TAXED MANUFACTURED GOODS AND SOLD BONDS.


MORE…

  • BY 1862, DAILY COST OF WAR WAS $1.75 MILLION PER DAY

  • NORTH PASSED THE LEGAL TENDER ACT(1862)

    • ISSUES PAPER MONEY CALLED “GREENBACKS”

  • NATIONAL BANKING ACT 1863- BANKS MUST BUY FEDERAL BONDS.


Mobilization technology
MobilizationTechnology

  • Technology same for both sides

    • More accurate rifles with longer range

    • Deadly advances in artillery pieces

    • First crude submarines (South)

    • Beginning of trench warfare

    • Cavalry and Bayonets become secondary and eventually obsolete

  • The element of surprise is the greatest advantage


Military strategy suppression vs attrition

North

Suppress a rebellion and restore a Union

Compel the South into ceasing their attempts

Completely crush the war-waging capacity of the South

South

Fight a war of attrition

Prolong the war to the point where it becomes a waste of time and money to continue

Win independence by default if North does not continue

Military StrategySuppression vs. Attrition


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