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Chapter 9 . It’s Party Time!!!!!!!! Political Parties. What is a political party? . An organized group that seeks to Win elections Hold public office Operate the government Determine public policy. Parties exist to:. Label candidates (Party ID) Helpful for voters, shorthand… Govern

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Chapter 9

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Chapter 9

Chapter 9

It’s Party Time!!!!!!!!

Political Parties

What is a political party

What is a political party?

  • An organized group that seeks to

    • Win elections

    • Hold public office

    • Operate the government

    • Determine public policy

Parties exist to

Parties exist to:

  • Label candidates (Party ID)

    • Helpful for voters, shorthand…

  • Govern

    • Congressional rules and organization are based on the 2 party system

    • Critique party in power

  • Organize election process

    • Recruit candidates, mobilize voters, info on issues…

What else do they do

What else do they do?

  • Serve as a linkage institution that connects citizens to government

Why do we have a two party system

Why do we have a two party system?

1. Congressional and local elections

  • Winner take all , plurality (as opposed to proportional: win 20% of votes get 20% of the seats)

  • single member district (1 candidate per office)

    2. Electoral College

  • Names of Democratic and Republican candidates are automatically placed on ballots

  • 3rd party candidates must obtain a certain # of signatures to get on the ballot

  • One multiparty systems

    One / Multiparty systems

    • One party: a single party exercises total control over whole government

      • China , Iran

    • Multiparty: a number of parties compete for offices

      • Parties are often based on a few issues , illustrating widely differing views on policy

        • France , Italy, Israel

    Benefits of political parties

    Benefits of political parties

    • Offer clear choices to voters

      • No need to gather volumes of information on tons of candidates

    • Eases transition of officials after elections

    Weakening of parties party de alignment

    Weakening of parties (Party De-alignment)

    • Less people identify with single party

      • More split ticket voting

        • Dem for Pres / Rep for Congress

        • More identify as independent (about 38%)

    • Organization

      • Parties no longer run the general elections, less local influence

        • Prior to progressive era parties organized election, printed ballots, provided incentive for voters to turn out (28 gallons of rum)

    Weakening of party identification

    Weakening of party identification

    Trends in split ticket voting

    Trends in split ticket voting

    Parties in us vs parties in europe

    Parties in US vs. Parties in Europe

    US: weaker parties

    Europe: stronger parties

    National government has much more power

    Less regulation on parties

    People vote more for party than for individual

    • Federal system: decentralizes party

    • Regulated by federal and state laws

    • Candidates picked through primaries, not selected by party leaders

    • President and Congress elected separately

    • Presidential appointees

    History of political parties reading due tomorrow 1 3 13

    History of political parties Reading: Due Tomorrow (1/3/13)

    • Create a chart for each party system with the following information: (there are 6)

      • Dominant party of the time

      • Core beliefs of each party

      • Voting coalitions for each side

        • Any particular regions? Groups of people?

      • What caused the change in party systems to occur?

    History of the 2 party system

    History of the 2 party system

    • Why have there been changes in political parties?

      • New issues emerge causing new voter coalitions to be formed :known as Realigning / critical elections

      • 2 types:

        • 1 – parties disappear

          • Federalist / Whigs

        • 2- coalitions of voters switch party loyalty

          • 1896, 1932, 1968

    1 st party system federalists vs democratic republicans 1796 1816 dr s dominate

    1st party system: Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans 1796-1816 (DR’s dominate)

    • Starts at the Federal Level: Loose political parties form in Congress to help pass legislation

    • Federalists = strong Fed gov’t, close relationship with Brits

      • New England, commercial interests

      • Starts diminishing in power after election of 1800, fades away after War of 1812

    • Democratic Republicans = loose coalition organized against Feds

      • South, agrarian interests

      • Created to defeat Adams in 1796 (he wins)

      • The sole ruling party from 1816-1824: Era of Good Feelings

        • Really party is dividing

          2nd party system emerges because Federalists disappear!!!!!

    2 nd party system democrats and whigs 1828 1860 dem s dominate

    2nd Party system: Democrats and Whigs 1828-1860 (Dem’s dominate)

    • Democratic Republicans split to form the Dems and Whigs

      • Dems: South and West, farmers

      • Whigs: North, business interests… loose association of groups opposed to Jackson

        • Breaks apart due to divisions over slavery

    • Parties controlled at local level (rather than national level)

      • Nominating conventions, patronage

      • Political participation increases dramatically

        • Universal white male suffrage

          3rd party system emerges because Whigs disappear

    3 rd party system democrats and republicans 1860 1896

    3rd party system: Democrats and Republicans 1860-1896

    • 1856: Republicans emerge as a 3rd party to challenge Kansas Nebraska Act of 1854 (slavery allowed in new territories)

      • Only 3rd party to become a major party

    • Attracted anti-slavery dems and Whigs

      • Anti-slavery

      • Free market (as opposed to slave labor)

      • Expansion of railroad

      • High tariff

        Republicans dominate presidency and Senate, Dems often control the House

    3 rd party system democrats and republicans 1860 18961

    3rd party system: Democrats and Republicans 1860-1896

    • During this era Dems continue to appeal to Southern, agrarian interests, also appeal to urban workers, immigrants, and Catholics…

    • Election of 1896: WJ Bryan, dem nominee adopts populist platform and alienate many Northern Dems

      • Nativist ideas alienate immigrants

      • Protestant ideology alienates Catholics

      • Free silver alienates urban workers

        Realigning because coalition of voters switch party

        Dems loose key coalitions of voters and realize they can’t just appeal to farmers (as they tried to in 1896)!!!

    4 th party system democrats and republicans 1896 1932 reps dominate

    4th party system : Democrats and Republicans 1896-1932 (Reps dominate)

    • Republicans win presidency 7 of 9 elections, control Congress in 15 of 18 elections

    • Start of solid red/ blue divide (although Republicans dominate North and Democrats dominate the South)

    • Many election reforms introduced during period ( starts to diminish the power of local parties)

      • Primary / caucus

      • Direct election of Senators

      • Civil Service

    4 th party system democrats and republicans 1896 1932 reps dominate1

    4th party system : Democrats and Republicans 1896-1932 (Reps dominate)

    • 1901-1912: Progressive Republicans prevail

      • The popularity of progressivism influence the national and local agendas of both parties causing them to espouse similar ideology

    • 1912-1920 (Dems win presidency 2x’s, control Congress 1913-1917)

      • Republican party splits

        • Progressive republicans: low tariff, regulation of business, progressive income tax, support of the worker…

        • Conservative “traditional” republicans: high taxes, little gov regulation, support industry…

    • 1920-1932: Conservatives emerge

      • Reps: high tariff, low taxes, little regulation of business

    4 th party system democrats and republicans 1896 1932 reps dominate2

    4th party system : Democrats and Republicans 1896-1932 (Reps dominate)

    • Election of 1928: Catholics and immigrants start to move back to the Democratic Party due to the nomination of Al Smith (wet, Catholic)

    • Great Depression hits 1929

      • Continues through Hoovers term, getting worse!!!!!

    • FDR wins election of 1932: New Deal coalition emerges

      • Catholics, immigrants, Jews, African Americans , Urban workers,

        • Dems also keep Southern Whites

    5 th party system democrats and republican 1932 1968 dems dominate

    5th Party System: Democrats and Republican 1932-1968 (Dems dominate)

    • Dems: keep New Deal coalition

    • Reps: struggle to offer an alternative, many programs very popular (majoritarian / Social Security) ; division within their party

      • Liberal republicans = supported bigger gov’t and New Deal ideology but felt republicans could administer programs more efficiently (dominant in Northeast)

      • conservative republicans = wanted to dismantle much of the New Deal legislation as well as

        • Lower taxes, less gov’t regulation of business, less federal control

    5 th party system democrats and republican 1932 1968 dems dominate1

    5th Party System: Democrats and Republican 1932-1968 (Dems dominate)

    • Dems coalition breaking by the 1960s

      • Civil rights legislation ( alienates S. Dems as early as the late 1940s, alienates working class Northern Dems by 1960s)

      • Johnson’s Great Society ( blue collar / white collar divide)

      • Vietnam War (alienates young dems and upper class intellectuals)

    6 th party system divided government 1968 present

    6th Party System: Divided Government 1968-Present

    • What causes it to emerge: Disintegration of the New Deal coalition leaves the door open for Republicans to re-emerge

    • Characteristics of this era:

      • Congress and the Presidency often controlled by different parties

      • Red/ Blue states switch: Why? (2 reasons)

        • 1. Nixon and the “Southern Strategy”: 1968 &72

          • Race becomes more important than class

            • For the first half of the 20th century, white protestant southern voters were more liberal on every issue than white protestant northern voters, with one exception: race.

            • Class was more important than race for decades because of poverty. With growing affluence in the 1960s, however, race began to be more important than class.

    6 th party system divided government 1968 present1

    6th Party System: Divided Government 1968-Present

    • 2. Reagan (1980) brings religious conservatives solidly into the Republican party

      • Concentrated more heavily in the South

      • By the election of 1980 the South becomes solidly republican

    6 th party system divided government 1968 present2

    6th Party System: Divided Government 1968-Present

    • Democrats continued to appeal to union members, upper class intellectuals, racial minorities, and progressives (abortion, gay rights, environmentalism, feminism)

      • Women move in larger numbers into the Democratic party during this era

    • Republicans appeal to Southern, rural, white, protestant, wealthier individuals

    6 th party system divided government 1968 present3

    6th Party System: Divided Government 1968-Present

    • During this time period each party has become more ideologically distinct

      • Why?

        • Less party identification by voters (de-alignment)

          • Those who continue to identify are less moderate

        • Nominating process

          • Must appeal to liberal / conservative activists to secure parties nomination

        • Activist within parties discourage compromise

          • If you work across the aisle you’re a “sell out”

            Pros: clear alternatives are evident for voters

            Cons: inaction

    Party system review

    Party system review

    • 1. What is the only 3rd party to become a majority party?

    Chapter 9

    • Republicans

    Chapter 9

    • 2. Which political party forms as a loose coalition opposed to Andrew Jackson?

    Chapter 9

    • 2. Whigs

    Chapter 9

    • 3. What event lead to the dissolution of the Federalist party?

    Chapter 9

    • 3. War of 1812

    Chapter 9

    • 4. What 3 groups of voters did Democrats alienate during the election of 1896, starting the 4th party era?

    Chapter 9

    • 4. Catholics, immigrants, urban workers

    Chapter 9

    • 5. Why did Southern Whites begin to flee the democratic party in the 1960s?

    Chapter 9

    • 5. Democrats pushing Civil Rights legislation

    Awesome graph depicting history of parties

    AWESOME graph depicting history of parties




    3 rd minor partie s

    3rd / minor parties

    • Types:

      • Ideological: radically different view on government

        • Communist Party

        • Libertarian Party

        • Green Party

      • Single-issue parties

        • Prohibition Party

      • Factional / Splinter Parties: break off from existing party

        • Bull Moose Progressives (1912)

        • Dixicrats (1948)

        • American Independent Party (1968)

      • Economic-protest parties: usually form during economically depressed periods

        • Populists (1892)

    What purpose do 3 rd minor parties serve

    What purpose do 3rd / minor parties serve?

    • Often influence platform of major party, and then die out

      • 1896: Dems/ Populists

      • 1968 & 1972: Reps / American Independent Party

      • 1992: Dems & Reps / Ross Perot

    3 rd minor parties

    3rd / minor Parties

    1992 who voted for perot

    1992: Who voted for Perot?

    Impact importance of 3 rd minor parties

    Impact / importance of 3rd /minor parties

    • Often push a major party to adopt their ideas

      • Examples????

    • Can play the “spoiler role”

      • Ralph Nader: 2000 / 2% of vote

      • TR: 1912

    Why is it difficult for 3 rd parties to emerge in presidential elections

    Why is it difficult for 3rd parties to emerge in Presidential elections?

    • Electoral College

      • Winner take all

    • Public Financing

      • Must be a member of a political party

      • Must show broad based support by raising at least $5,000 in at least 20 states (100,000)

    • Ballot Access: reading

      • Why so difficult?

    • Participation in debates

      • Must meet constitutional requirements

        • What are they?

      • Must be on enough state ballots to theoretically win 270 electoral votes

      • 5 separate polling organizations must indicate that the candidate has a rating of at least 15%

    Nominating process

    Nominating process

    • History

      • 1st party era: picked by Congress

      • 2nd party era-6th Party era: Nomination conventions that rely more heavily on party officials than primary results

        • Non-binding primaries

        • Factional / splinter parties more common

          • 1912, 1948, 1968

      • 6th party era: current primary / caucus system

        • Delegates representing a candidate are chosen during these elections (similar to electoral college)

    6 th party system the current state of our 6 th party system

    6th party system: The current state of our 6th party system

    • Divided government ( no one party controls both Congress and the Presidency )

    • Hyper-partisanship

      The problem is not divided government, it is the lack of compromise between the parties, since no one party dominates it is imperative that the parties work together to avoid inaction

      What are the causes of hyper- partisanship?

    The media and hyper partisanship

    The Media and hyper partisanship

    “The increasingly uncivil tone of our public

    dialogue is hurting our ability to deal with issues

    and discouraging people from participating in

    the discussion and entering public life. We are

    suffering from a national civility disorder that

    is leading us down an unhelpful and unhealthy

    political path.”

    Pam Jenkins

    President of Powell Tate

    John Stewart v. Crossfire

    What is the solution to our era of divided government centered around hyper partisanship

    What is the solution to our era of divided government centered around hyper partisanship?

    • Minor parties

      • Elect more to office?

        • What would need to change to accomplish this?

          • Ballot access, funding, debate participation, winner take all system

    • Changes in the electoral system?

      • Multi-member districts instead of single member districts?

      • Run-off elections ?

      • Proportional instead of winner takes all?

      • Nominating process?

        • More participation in primaries / caucuses?

        • Non-binding primaries / caucuses?

    • Media

      • Do they exacerbate the partisan divide? Is there anything to be done about this?

    • 7th party system?

      • What might it look like?

        • Will a Critical issue emerge?

        • Will a Party fade away?

        • As a group, pick and expand on 1 way we can work towards a solution to the current state of hyper-partisanship.

          • What is the problem? What is your solution?

      • 7th party system ,create a scenario : what will cause the 6th party system to end? What will a 7th party system look like?

    The media and politics

    The Media and Politics

    “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.”

    -Thomas Jefferson

    • What is the role of the media in politics?

      • Linkage institution: connects people and government officials , helps to publicize certain issues…

    • Do news organizations have an obligation to the public?

      • Give them what they want or what they need?

      • Is the news becoming “infotainment” ? Does that matter?

    The media and politics1

    The media and politics

    Snapshot of a Typical Day

    • 13 million people listen to "Morning Edition" on NPR

    • 9 million people watch ABC World News Tonight

    • 2.4 million people watch The O'Reilly Factor on Fox News

    • 1.6 million people watch The Daily Show

    • 1.4 million people visit

    • 1 million people buy The New York Times print edition

    • 715,000 people buy TheWashington Post print edition

    • 350,000 people watch CNN's American Morning

    The media and politics2

    The Media and Politics

    The Big Picture

    • On a typical day... 57% of Americans watch TV news

    • 54% watch their local news

    • 34% watch cable news channels

    • 28% watch the nightly network news

    • 23% watch the morning news programs (The Today Show, Good Morning America, etc.)

    • 40% of Americans read a newspaper

    • 36% of Americans listen to news on the radio

    • 23 % of Americans get news online

    • 18% visit news aggregators (Google News, Yahoo! News, AOL News, etc.)

    • 14% visit national TV networks' sites (,,, etc.)

    • 14% visit newspaper Web sites

    • 4% visit news blogs

    • 3% visit online news magazines (,, etc.)

    Does the media owe us anything

    Does the media owe us anything?

    • What is news?

      • Class definition: How to detect bias in the media

      • Selection of stories: are the stories pushing a liberal or conservative agenda?

      • Labeling: what words are used to describe people and issues

        • Radical, leftists…

      • Spin: are there subjective comments by the host / reporter? Is only one side of an issue discussed?

        “Court Backs Loaded Guns in Public“ what type of judgment is this headline making?

        Analysis of cable network news: due Friday

        - see website for worksheets

    The media in america

    The Media in America

    • Primary objective: make profits (get ratings so companies will advertise)

      • News media

        • Vast market

        • Private industry, but important part of the public sphere

        • Gov’t lightly regulates media

          • Many other nations govern portions of the media and run it as a public trust

    Broadcast media regulations

    Broadcast Media regulations

    • Gov regulates the content and ownership of broadcast media, print media has essential no regulation

      • FCC: regulates TV and terrestrial radio (1934)

        • Prohibit obscenity, indecency, and profanity from 6am to 10pm

          • Super Bowl, South Park, Howard Stern

        • Equal time rule: must provide candidates for the same political office equal opportunities to communicate message to public

        • Right of rebuttal: individuals must have opportunity to respond to personal attacks

    Print media

    Print media

    • Little regulation

    • No prior restraint: except under the most extraordinary of cases , the 1st amendment prohibits the gov from censoring newspapers and magazines

      • NY Times v. United States

      • Are subject to libel laws: can’t print false or malicious stories

        • Can be forced to pay damages

        • NY Times v. Sullivan (Due Friday)

          • Brief summary of the case: what is each side’s position

          • Court ruling

          • Impact : the good and the bad

    Chapter 9


    George Washington on political parties: “serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one part against another; foments occasionally riot and insurrection.”

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