The role of electric mobility in future energy systems
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The role of electric mobility in future Energy Systems. Dr. ir. Zofia Lukszo With collaboration with dr. Remco Verzijlbergh Section Energy and Industry Technology, Policy and Management @: [email protected] Content. Why electric mobility? Responsive demand

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The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

The role of electric mobility in future Energy Systems

Dr. ir. Zofia Lukszo

With collaboration with dr. Remco Verzijlbergh

Section Energy and Industry

Technology, Policy and Management

@: [email protected]


Content

Content

  • Why electric mobility?

    • Responsive demand

  • Are the goals of many actors involved the same?

  • What about the environment?

  • Why EVs can be compared to cold storage warehouses?

  • What can we learn from looking at different price scenario’s?

  • Future work


  • The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

    Future energy systems

    Old

    schedule generation

    to meet demand

    New

    schedule demand

    to meet generation

    e.g.

    electric mobility


    Electric mobility

    Electric mobility

    How can electric mobility contribute to a more sustainable transportation & electrical power system and on the same time align the interests

    of its relevant actors?

    See: Remco Verzijlbergh, The Power of Electric Vehicles,

    PhD Thesis TU Delft, 2013, http://repository.tudelft.nl/


    Why electric mobility co 2 emission air quality noise polluttion

    Why electric mobility - CO2 emission air quality, noise polluttion

    NO2


    Energy usage households 10 kwh

    Energy usage households +/- 10 kWh


    The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

    Power sector

    complex socio-technical system


    Standard household profile

    Standard Household Profile


    Estimation of the expected energy usage of evs data from mobility research netherlands

    Estimation of the expected energy usage of EVsData from Mobility Research Netherlands

    Average: ~34 km

    ~ 90% < 100km

    Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, “Mobiliteitsonderzoek Nederland (in Dutch)” Available: www.mobiliteitsonderzoeknederland.nl


    Charging scenario s and network load based on real life data

    Charging scenario's and network loadBased on real life data


    Network load 100 houses and 50 evs

    Network load:100 houses and 50 EVs

    Price control

    Load Control

    Imbalance Control

    Separate EV demand profiles


    Electric mobility in a city city of utrecht

    Load flow analysis shows:

    Electric mobility in a city– city of Utrecht

    • 10% electric mobility  24% overloaded

    • Reference case (merely organic growth)

    •  19% overloaded

    See E.J. Kleiwegt, Electric Mobility: on the Road to Energy Transition:

    A technical and actor assessment of social costs of electric mobility, Master Thesis, TU Delft, 2011

    http://repository.tudelft.nl/


    Example city of utrecht

    Example – city of Utrecht

    Use calculations for critical component map

    Green/Yellow/

    Red

    locations for installing charging stations


    Merit order vs emission two cases

    Merit order vs emission – two cases

    D A


    Co 2 emissions of ev charging as a function of co 2 price

    CO2 emissions of EV charging as a function of CO2 price

    A

    D


    Dispatch profiles for different vehicles scenarios

    Dispatch profiles for different vehicles scenarios


    Charging strategy based on predicted price

    Charging strategy based on predicted price


    The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

    Negative price?

    Conventional,

    wind and

    solar

    power and

    spot prices

    for the German

    system on

    June 16th

    2013.


    The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

    Responsive demand – cold storage

    Old

    schedule generation

    to meet demand

    New

    schedule demand

    to meet generation

    e.g. with

    a cold storage warehouse


    The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

    Matching renewable energy and demand response through price

    • System model:

    • Cold store has PV generation on site

    • PV production known in advance

    • Pays price Cin(t) for energy, receives Cout(t)

    • Temperature upper bound Tmax

    • Goal: Investigate relations between demand response strategy of a cold store and electricity prices & Evaluate different pricing regimes on optimal energy use


    The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

    Physical model of cold store

    Heat balance

    Incoming heat

    Outgoing heat

    Resulting equation for T dynamics

    Discretized in time


    The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

    System model

    • Cold store has PV generation on site

    • PV production known in advance

    • Pays price Cin(t) for energy, receives Cout(t)

    • Temperature upper bound Tmax


    The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

    Optimization formulation

    Objective function

    constraints


    The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

    Compare cold store with EV optimization problem

    Optimization problem

    State dynamics


    The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

    Price scenarios

    A: flat tariff

    B: flat double tariff

    C: day-night tariff

    D: APX based real time tariff

    E: APX based real time tariff,

    high solar penetration


    The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

    Comparison

    • Optimal cooling trajectory depends strongly on tariff structure.

    • Local use of PV energy depends on tariffs

    • Most 'value' of control in case with high solar penetration.

    • The effective use of demand response requires the right tariff structure


    New plans

    New plans


    Nwo urses capp project

    NWO URSES - CaPP Project

    • Design, Management and Control Systems for multi-modal, detachable decentral sustainable energy systems

    • Car as Power Plant as a multi-modal system (power, transport, gas/hydrogen, heat)

    • ICT and business models for CaPP

    • Detachable decentral = fuel cell cars


    Nwo urses capp project1

    NWO URSES – CaPP Project

    • design, assess and analyse the fuel cell car as power plant (CaPP) in integrated transport and energy systems

    • investigate and design robust control systems of CaPP-based smart energy systems

    • explore effective incentive and organizational structures for the emergence of CaPP integrated energy and transport systems


    The role of electric mobility in future energy systems

    PhD wanted!

    CaPP


    Most urgent question

    Most urgent question

    • How to reduce uncertainty for actors in the energy chain by developing the science and tools that are needed for smart energy systems?


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