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Local Drug Use Trends 2011 & What We Can Do. D. Scott Kelly MA,CAADC,CRPS Co-Founder & Executive Director Bay Area Substance Education Services, Inc. (BASES) 208 W Lincoln, Charlevoix, MI 49720 (231) 547-1144 www.BASESTeenCenter.org [email protected] Local Trends in 2011.

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Local drug use trends 2011 what we can do

Local Drug Use Trends 2011& What We Can Do

D. Scott Kelly MA,CAADC,CRPS

Co-Founder & Executive Director

Bay Area Substance Education Services, Inc. (BASES)

208 W Lincoln, Charlevoix, MI 49720

(231) 547-1144

www.BASESTeenCenter.org

[email protected]


Local trends in 2011
Local Trends in 2011

After all this time…

New and unusual…

Called “designer” or “club” drugs 10-20 years ago, now called synthetics

Synthetic cannabinoids – round two this year

Synthetic stimulants

Over the counters, herbals, strange and unusual concoctions

  • Alcohol still most widely used locally

  • Marijuana is on the rise

  • Tobacco is still a concern

  • Opiates & prescription pills are on the rise

  • Heroin and needle use on the rise

    A New Development on Teen Alcohol Use

    http://www.clickondetroit.com/video/29237120/index.html


Alcohol 30 day use trends for charlevoix county students
Alcohol - 30 Day Use Trends forCharlevoix County Students



A Major Reason People

Take a Drug is they Like

What It Does to Their Brains


Stimulants
Stimulants

COCAINE

CRACK

METHAMPHETAMINE


Types of stimulant drugs
Types of Stimulant Drugs

Cocaine Products

  • Cocaine Powder (Generally sniffed, injected, smoked on foil)

  • “Crack” (smoked)

  • Major areas of use: South America; USA (predominantly major urban centers, disproportionately impacts African American community); Increasing in Europe.


Types of stimulant drugs1
Types of Stimulant Drugs

Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS)

  • Amphetamine “Speed”

  • Dexamphetamine “Ice”

  • Methylphenidate “Crank”

  • Methamphetamine “Yaba”

    “Shabu”


Methamphetamine vs cocaine
Methamphetamine vs. Cocaine

  • Cocaine half-life: 1-2 hours

  • Methamphetamine half-life: 8-12 hours

  • Cocaine paranoia: 4 -8 hours following drug cessation

  • Methamphetamine paranoia: 7-14 days

  • Methamphetamine psychosis - May require medication/hospitalization and may not be reversible

  • Neurotoxicity: Appears to be more profound with amphetamine-like substances


Scope of the methamphetamine problem worldwide

According to surveys and estimates by WHO and UNODC, methamphetamine is the most widely used illicit drug in the world except for cannabis.

World wide it is estimated there are over 26 million regular users of amphetamine/methamphetamine, as compared to approximately 16 million heroin users and 14 million cocaine users

Scope of the Methamphetamine Problem Worldwide


FOOD methamphetamine is the most widely used illicit drug in the world except for cannabis.

SEX

200

200

NAc shell

150

150

DA Concentration (% Baseline)

100

100

15

% of Basal DA Output

10

Empty

Copulation Frequency

50

Box

Feeding

5

0

0

Scr

Scr

Scr

Scr

0

60

120

180

Bas

Female 1 Present

Female 2 Present

Mounts

Time (min)

Sample

Number

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Intromissions

Ejaculations

Source: Di Chiara et al.

Source: Fiorino and Phillips

Natural Rewards Elevate Dopamine Levels


Effects of Drugs on Dopamine Release methamphetamine is the most widely used illicit drug in the world except for cannabis.

1500

1000

500

0

COCAINE

METHAMPHETAMINE

Accumbens

400

Accumbens

DA

300

DOPAC

HVA

% of Basal Release

% Basal Release

200

100

0

0

1

2

3hr

Time After Cocaine

Time After Methamphetamine

250

NICOTINE

ETHANOL

250

Accumbens

Dose (g/kg ip)

200

Accumbens

200

Caudate

0.25

0.5

150

% of Basal Release

1

2.5

% of Basal Release

150

100

0

1

2

3 hr

100

0

0

0

1

2

3

4hr

Time After Nicotine

Time After Ethanol

Source: Shoblock and Sullivan; Di Chiara and Imperato


Prolonged Drug Use Changes methamphetamine is the most widely used illicit drug in the world except for cannabis.

the Brain In Fundamental

and Long-Lasting Ways


Decreased dopamine transporter binding in meth users resembles that in parkinson s disease patients
Decreased dopamine transporter binding in METH users resembles that in Parkinson’s Disease patients

%ID/cc

Control Methamphetamine PD

Source: McCann U.D.. et al.,Journal of Neuroscience, 18, pp. 8417-8422, October 15, 1998.

.


Their resembles that inBrains

have been

Re-Wired

by Drug Use

Because…


Partial Recovery of Brain Dopamine Transporters in Methamphetamine (METH)

Abuser After Protracted Abstinence

3

0

ml/gm

METH Abuser

(1 month detox)

Normal Control

METH Abuser

(24 months detox)

Source: Volkow, ND et al., Journal of Neuroscience 21, 9414-9418, 2001.


  • 33 year old man, high on methamphetamine admitted to emergency room complaining of severe headache in Portland Oregon.

  • X-ray revealed 12, 2 inch nails (6 on each side) in his head, administered with aq nail gun.

  • The man at first claimed it was an accident, but he later admitted that it was a suicide attempt. The nails were removed, and the man survived without any serious permanent damage.

  • He was eventually transferred to psychiatric care; he stayed for almost one month under court order but then left against doctors’ orders

MSNBC-TV


Long term effects of stimulants
Long-term effects of stimulants emergency room complaining of severe headache in Portland Oregon.

  • Strokes, seizures, and headaches

  • Irritability, restlessness

  • Depression, anxiety, irritability, anger

  • Memory loss, confusion, attention problems

  • Insomnia

  • Paranoia, auditory hallucinations, panic reactions

  • Suicidal ideation

  • Sinus infection

  • Loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, chronic runny nose, hoarseness

  • Dry mouth, burned lips

  • Worn teeth (due to grinding during intoxication)

  • Problems swallowing

  • Chest pain, cough, respiratory failure

  • Disturbances in heart rhythm and heart attack

  • Gastrointestinal complications (abdominal pain and nausea)

  • Loss of libido

  • Malnourishment, weight loss, anorexia

  • Weakness, fatigue

  • Tremors

  • Sweating

  • Oily skin, complexion


METH Use Leads to Severe Tooth Decay emergency room complaining of severe headache in Portland Oregon.

“METH Mouth”

Source: The New York Times, June 11, 2005.


Methamphetamine psychiatric consequences
Methamphetamine emergency room complaining of severe headache in Portland Oregon.Psychiatric Consequences

  • Paranoid reactions

  • Long term memory loss

  • Depressive reactions

  • Hallucinations

  • Psychotic reactions

  • Panic disorders

  • Rapid addiction


More on synthetics
More on Synthetics… emergency room complaining of severe headache in Portland Oregon.

Spice & K2


More on synthetics1
More on Synthetics… emergency room complaining of severe headache in Portland Oregon.

Bath Salts


More on synthetics2
More on Synthetics… emergency room complaining of severe headache in Portland Oregon.

Spice & K2

http://www.slideshare.net/Guedde/spicek2-synthetic-cannabinoids-6988186

Bath Salts

http://www.slideshare.net/Guedde/mdpv-bath-salts-emerging-drug-trends


Based on local er reports
Based on local ER reports… emergency room complaining of severe headache in Portland Oregon.

  • More and more psychotic features coming into the emergency rooms locally

  • Believed to be a result of synthetics – cannabinoids and stimulants

  • Locals are involved in making their own concoctions of these and there is no way of knowing what is in them…


Michigan economics
Michigan Economics… emergency room complaining of severe headache in Portland Oregon.

  • High levels of unemployment locally

  • Unemployment benefits running out

  • With the increases in drug use and more bizarre psychiatric responses from these chemicals, there is potential for increases in property crimes and violent crimes

  • Need to TAKE ACTION NOW in a multitude of ways…


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