The French Civil/Religious Wars. The Religious Wars. Between 1560 (The League of Augsburg) and 1648 Two Major Wars caused devastation for Europe. But the memory of the Religious Wars would go a long ways toward bringing about a religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
The French Civil/Religious Wars
Between 1560 (The League of Augsburg) and 1648 Two Major Wars caused devastation for Europe
But the memory of the Religious Wars would go a long ways toward bringing about a religious freedom and the separation of church and state
It must also be considered, that though religion has been cited as the main catalyst for these wars,ECONOMICS and POLITICAL ALLIANCES were perhaps equally important
The French Religious Wars…
Lutherans in Germany and Anglicans in England also opposed the spread of Calvinism—they believed there wasn’t enough room for another religion. Besides, Calvinism was troubling because of its independence
Remember, Calvinism did not respect state authority over religious independence. One’s allegiance was to God
These three kings—Francis—1560, Charles IX 1574, and Henry III, 1589 never have a firm hand on the monarchy
The Huguenots, led by the King of Navarre and Admiral Coligny
The Catholic Guise family
During this time, France slid into civil war
The Huguenots fought for religious liberty
The Guises fought to eliminate Calvinism, but they also fought for control of France. Henry III ordered the assassination of the Duke of Guise
Catherine de Medici, the queen mother, played both sides against each other.
Matters came to a head when Henry, King of Navarre came to Paris to marry Margot, daughter of Catherine de Medici, and sister to the King (1572)
Catherine de Medici orders that the Huguenot leaders are to be killed. Henry of Navarre escapes—but Coligny is murdered.
This occurred on St. Bartholomew’s Day. Mob violence broke out as both sides killed each other
Thousands of Huguenots were murdered across France. Hell broke lose as mercenaries were hired to participate in the killing
In Rome, the pope was delighted with the murder of the Huguenots. He ordered a celebration mass. Medals were struck to remember this Catholic victory.
Elizabeth looked at the events in France with horror. She became even more determined to prevent this happening in her country.
The French royal family also tried to lure Elizabeth into marriage with one of their members, the younger son of Catherine, the Duke of Anjou
Wisely, Elizabeth kept out of the French mess—she focused her aide on the Netherlands revolt—an area where she could have the most impact
This religious fighting in France was chaotic, with armed bands roaming the countryside and many mini-truces among different areas.
Gradually, there developed the belief that nothing justified this everlasting chaos and war.
The idea that civil order can accommodate more than one religion
France looked toward Henry of Navarre to provide the leadership needed.
He and Princess Margot never grew close, but she was loyal and supportive.
The final son, Henry III, of Catherine de Medici was assassinated in 1589.
This Edict guaranteed civil rights for Huguenots. Paris was off limit to Protestants
And Henry IV FORCED toleration on his country
Henry IV became one of France’s greatest Kings
He amicably divorced Margot, and married Marie de Medici. They had several children.
He helped France to rebuild after the wars and promised a “Chicken in Every Pot.”
He never consulted the French Parliament, the Estates General---Taxes (the taille) were administered directly. Parliament was not consulted.
Marie ruled alone as a regent for her son, Louis XIII.
Over time, Cardinal Richelieu of France gained great influence during the childhood and adulthood of Louis XIII—only dying a year before Louis did. (1642)
Richelieu tried to maintain the order of Henry IV—he was the de facto ruler for 32 years
The way was paved for France’s greatest absolute monarch, Louis XIV