The French Civil/Religious Wars. The Religious Wars. Between 1560 (The League of Augsburg) and 1648 Two Major Wars caused devastation for Europe. But the memory of the Religious Wars would go a long ways toward bringing about a religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
Between 1560 (The League of Augsburg) and 1648 Two Major Wars caused devastation for Europe
But the memory of the Religious Wars would go a long ways toward bringing about a religious freedom and the separation of church and stateAfter these wars, Religion would cease to have a major role in European Warfare
It must also be considered, that though religion has been cited as the main catalyst for these wars,ECONOMICS and POLITICAL ALLIANCES were perhaps equally important
The French Religious Wars… because religion has caused so much destruction in history.”
Lutherans in Germany and Anglicans in England also opposed the spread of Calvinism—they believed there wasn’t enough room for another religion. Besides, Calvinism was troubling because of its independence
Remember, Calvinism did not respect state authority over religious independence. One’s allegiance was to God
These three kings—Francis—1560, Charles IX 1574, and Henry III, 1589 never have a firm hand on the monarchyHenry II dies in a joust—Catherine Medici, his widow, is left with three young sons.
The Henry III, 1589 never have a firm hand on the monarchyHuguenots, led by the King of Navarre and Admiral Coligny
The Catholic Guise familyThere were two sides:
During this time, France slid into civil war Henry III, 1589 never have a firm hand on the monarchy
The Huguenots fought for Henry III, 1589 never have a firm hand on the monarchyreligious liberty
The Guises fought to Henry III, 1589 never have a firm hand on the monarchyeliminate Calvinism, but they also fought for control of France. Henry III ordered the assassination of the Duke of Guise
Catherine de Medici, the queen mother, played both sides against each other.
Matters came to a head when Henry, King of Navarre came to Paris to marry Margot, daughter of Catherine de Medici, and sister to the King (1572)
Catherine de Medici orders that the Huguenot leaders are to be killed. Henry of Navarre escapes—but Coligny is murdered.
This occurred on St. Bartholomew’s Day. Mob violence broke out as both sides killed each other
Thousands of Huguenots were murdered across France. Hell broke lose as mercenaries were hired to participate in the killing
In Rome, the pope was delighted with the murder of the Huguenots. He ordered a celebration mass. Medals were struck to remember this Catholic victory.
Elizabeth looked at the events in France with horror. She became even more determined to prevent this happening in her country.The Protestants appealed to Elizabeth of England to invade France.
The French royal family also tried to lure Elizabeth into marriage with one of their members, the younger son of Catherine, the Duke of Anjou
Wisely, Elizabeth kept out of the French mess—she focused her aide on the Netherlands revolt—an area where she could have the most impact
This religious fighting in France was chaotic, with armed bands roaming the countryside and many mini-truces among different areas.
Gradually, there developed the belief that nothing justified this everlasting chaos and war.
France looked toward Henry of Navarre to provide the leadership needed.
He and Princess Margot never grew close, but she was loyal and supportive.If we remember, Henry had barely escaped from the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
The final son, Henry III, of Catherine de Medici was assassinated in 1589.
This Edict guaranteed civil rights for Huguenots. Paris was off limit to ProtestantsHenry did not forget the Huguenots. He issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598
And Henry IV FORCED toleration on his country off limit to ProtestantsThe Huguenots became less rebellious after the Edict of Nantes
Henry IV became one of France’s greatest Kings off limit to Protestants
He amicably divorced Margot, and married Marie de Medici. They had several children.
He helped France to rebuild after the wars and promised a “Chicken in Every Pot.”
He never consulted the French Parliament, the Estates General---Taxes (the taille) were administered directly. Parliament was not consulted.
Over time, Cardinal Richelieu of France gained great influence during the childhood and adulthood of Louis XIII—only dying a year before Louis did. (1642)
Richelieu tried to maintain the order of Henry IV—he was the de facto ruler for 32 years