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The French Civil/Religious Wars. The Religious Wars. Between 1560 (The League of Augsburg) and 1648 Two Major Wars caused devastation for Europe. But the memory of the Religious Wars would go a long ways toward bringing about a religious freedom and the separation of church and state.

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The Religious Wars

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The french civil religious wars

The French Civil/Religious Wars

The Religious Wars

The religious wars

Between 1560 (The League of Augsburg) and 1648 Two Major Wars caused devastation for Europe

After these wars religion would cease to have a major role in european warfare

But the memory of the Religious Wars would go a long ways toward bringing about a religious freedom and the separation of church and state

After these wars, Religion would cease to have a major role in European Warfare

The religious wars

It must also be considered, that though religion has been cited as the main catalyst for these wars,ECONOMICS and POLITICAL ALLIANCES were perhaps equally important

The religious wars

  • Therefore, when you hear a person say “I’m not religious because religion has caused so much destruction in history.”

  • Say to them, politely, “Don’t blame religion, buddy, it was economics and political alliances that caused many problems.”

The religious wars

The French Religious Wars…

  • France was largest country in Europe

  • Calvinism spread quickly into France (Calvin himself was French)

In france a large proportion of the nobility became protestant

In France, a large proportion of the nobility became Protestant

  • Like Germany, these nobles wanted the right to choose the religion of their area

  • Many towns converted to Protestantism

The kings of france opposed calvinism

The Kings of France opposed Calvinism

  • This includes Francois I

  • And Henry II

The religious wars

Lutherans in Germany and Anglicans in England also opposed the spread of Calvinism—they believed there wasn’t enough room for another religion. Besides, Calvinism was troubling because of its independence

The religious wars

Remember, Calvinism did not respect state authority over religious independence. One’s allegiance was to God

In france persecution of the huguenots begins

In France, persecution of the Huguenots begins

  • Many are burned at Stake

The religious wars

These three kings—Francis—1560, Charles IX 1574, and Henry III, 1589 never have a firm hand on the monarchy

Henry II dies in a joust—Catherine Medici, his widow, is left with three young sons.

The huguenots led by the king of navarre and admiral coligny vs the catholic guise family

The Huguenots, led by the King of Navarre and Admiral Coligny


The Catholic Guise family

There were two sides:

The religious wars

During this time, France slid into civil war

The religious wars

The Huguenots fought for religious liberty

The religious wars

The Guises fought to eliminate Calvinism, but they also fought for control of France. Henry III ordered the assassination of the Duke of Guise

The religious wars

Catherine de Medici, the queen mother, played both sides against each other.

The religious wars

Matters came to a head when Henry, King of Navarre came to Paris to marry Margot, daughter of Catherine de Medici, and sister to the King (1572)

Thousands of huguenots flooded paris to see the marriage of their king

Thousands of Huguenots flooded Paris to see the marriage of their King

The religious wars

Catherine de Medici orders that the Huguenot leaders are to be killed. Henry of Navarre escapes—but Coligny is murdered.

The religious wars

This occurred on St. Bartholomew’s Day. Mob violence broke out as both sides killed each other

Thousands of Huguenots were murdered across France. Hell broke lose as mercenaries were hired to participate in the killing

The religious wars

In Rome, the pope was delighted with the murder of the Huguenots. He ordered a celebration mass. Medals were struck to remember this Catholic victory.

The religious wars

Elizabeth looked at the events in France with horror. She became even more determined to prevent this happening in her country.

The Protestants appealed to Elizabeth of England to invade France.

The religious wars

The French royal family also tried to lure Elizabeth into marriage with one of their members, the younger son of Catherine, the Duke of Anjou

The religious wars

Wisely, Elizabeth kept out of the French mess—she focused her aide on the Netherlands revolt—an area where she could have the most impact

The religious wars

This religious fighting in France was chaotic, with armed bands roaming the countryside and many mini-truces among different areas.

The religious wars

Gradually, there developed the belief that nothing justified this everlasting chaos and war.

The idea that civil order can accommodate more than one religion

The idea that civil order can accommodate more than one religion

This belief was that of a politique

The religious wars

France looked toward Henry of Navarre to provide the leadership needed.

He and princess margot never grew close but she was loyal and supportive

He and Princess Margot never grew close, but she was loyal and supportive.

If we remember, Henry had barely escaped from the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

The religious wars

The final son, Henry III, of Catherine de Medici was assassinated in 1589.

  • Now the throne went to the next legal heir, Henry of Navarre—He would now be Henry IV.

  • Henry had the choice to convert to Catholicism before the Guise family would accept him—he converted in order to gain the throne.

He entered paris supposedly saying paris is worth a mass

He entered Paris, supposedly saying “Paris is worth a Mass”

  • The Catholics were delighted

  • The Huguenots were horrified

  • But Henry took the steps necessary to provide state order and end the French religious wars.

This edict guaranteed civil rights for huguenots paris was off limit to protestants

This Edict guaranteed civil rights for Huguenots. Paris was off limit to Protestants

Henry did not forget the Huguenots. He issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598

And henry iv forced toleration on his country

And Henry IV FORCED toleration on his country

The Huguenots became less rebellious after the Edict of Nantes

The religious wars

Henry IV became one of France’s greatest Kings

The religious wars

He amicably divorced Margot, and married Marie de Medici. They had several children.

The religious wars

He helped France to rebuild after the wars and promised a “Chicken in Every Pot.”

He brought peace and prosperity for 21 years of his rule

He brought peace and prosperity for 21 years of his rule.

The religious wars

He never consulted the French Parliament, the Estates General---Taxes (the taille) were administered directly. Parliament was not consulted.

Sadly henry was assassinated in 1610 by a crazed catholic fanatic

Sadly, Henry was assassinated in 1610 by a crazed Catholic fanatic

Ravellic was the assassin he was punished for his deed

Ravellic was the assassin. He was “punished” for his deed.

The religious wars

Marie ruled alone as a regent for her son, Louis XIII.

The religious wars

Over time, Cardinal Richelieu of France gained great influence during the childhood and adulthood of Louis XIII—only dying a year before Louis did. (1642)

Richelieu tried to maintain the order of Henry IV—he was the de facto ruler for 32 years

The religious wars

The way was paved for France’s greatest absolute monarch, Louis XIV

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