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Social & Emotional Development. Chapter 10. Processes in Social Behavior -Social Behavior as Operant Interactions. : Bert\'s Contingency : Sees Ernie → "Hi Ernie " → E. smiles Sd → R → S+r ( Setting Event = Walking along) Ernie\'s Contingency :

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processes in social behavior social behavior as operant interactions
Processes in Social Behavior -Social Behavior as Operant Interactions
  • :
  • Bert\'s Contingency:
  • Sees Ernie →"Hi Ernie" →E. smiles
  • Sd → R →S+r
  • ( Setting Event = Walking along)
  • Ernie\'s Contingency:
  • "Hi Ernie“ → E smiles→Bert Smiles
  • Sd →R →S+r
  • (Setting Event = In a good mood)
phylogenic contributions to social development
Phylogenic Contributions to Social Development
  • Physical Characteristics
  • Social Reflexes
    • Facial Expressions
    • Reflexive Crying
  • Neonatal Imitation
ontogenic contributions
Ontogenic Contributions
  • Social Behaviors
  • Reinforcement
  • Proximity
  • Attention
  • Affection
  • Observational Learning
social reinforcement
Social Reinforcement
  • Secondary Reinforcers
  • Paired with Primary Reinforcers
proximity
Proximity
  • Reinforcer - The nearness of you
attention
Attention
  • Mand for Mom
    • Verbal behavior reinforced by mom doing something
  • Ways of Reducing Mands for Attention
ways of reducing mands for attention
Ways of Reducing Mands for Attention
  • DRO – Differential Reinforcement of Other behavior
    • Incompatible response technique
    • Strengthens more desirable behavior
    • Doesn’t produced deprivation of reinforcer
  • Positive (Presentation) Punishment – Not recommended
    • Ethical? Escape
  • Negative Punishment (By Loss) (Weak if delayed)
    • Loss of privileges
    • Time-out
affection
Affection
  • Usually reinforces desirable behavior
observational learning traditional approached
Observational LearningTraditional Approached
  • Distinction between
    • Learning
    • Performance
  • Direct reinforcement affects performance
  • Vicarious consequences affect learning
    • Vicarious reinforcement
    • Vicarious punishment
an operant approach to observational learning
An Operant Approach to Observational Learning
  • Generalized imitation
    • Imitation (matching form of response) a response class
    • Class assembled because some (not all) matching behaviors are reinforced
    • Counterimitation – reinforced for different behavior than model
    • So called “vicarious reinforcement” is actually an Sd cuing operant matching behavior
observational learning of respondents emotional behavior
Observational Learning of Respondents - Emotional Behavior
  • Other’s emotional response serves as UCS for emotional response (UCR)
  • Stimulus (NS) paired with other’s emotional response (UCS) becomes CS producing emotional response (CR)
prosocial transactions intuitive parenting
Prosocial Transactions - Intuitive Parenting
  • 1. Creating and maintaining an awake state.
  • 2. Presenting a simple structure of stimuli and learning trials.
  • 3. Providing a large number of repetitions of trials.
  • 4. Gradually ordering of tasks so that there is increasing complexity.
  • 5. Using adequate reinforcers.
  • 6. Being sensitive to feedback signals indicating the child\'s limits of tolerance.
social behaviors in infancy
Social Behaviors in Infancy
  • Attachment
  • Separation Protests
  • Touch
  • Fear
  • Social Referencing
  • Sibling Rivaly
  • Empathy
  • Morality
attachment
Attachment
  • Organized pattern of behavior directed toward one or more individuals.
  • Result of phyologenic & ontogenic factors
  • Ontogenic – reinforcement of proximity, imitation, and identification behaviors16
reinforcement of separation protests
Reinforcement of Separation Protests
  • Loss of primary caregiver results in loss of reinforcers– extinction burst
  • Study by Gewirtz & Pelaez-Nogueras
  • Baseline- noncontingent reinforcement—protests were low
  • Contingent reinforcement by mothers of protests – protests increase
  • Noncontingent (reversal) – Protest decrease
infant carrying positions
Infant Carrying Positions
  • Facing Inward Facing Outward
morality
Morality
  • Direct Contingency-shaped behavior
  • Rule-governed behavior
  • Learns difference between
    • Immediate direct consequences
    • Remote, delayed, indirect consequences
  • Tracking – tracking or following actual contingencies rather than just follow rules
  • Pliance – complying with the rules in spite of discrepancies with actual contingencies.
morality behavior analytic approach
MoralityBehavior-Analytic Approach
  • An increasingly sophisticated repertoire of behaviors to further one’s long-term interests based on predicted outcomes.
  • An organized system of rule governed behavior that controls behavior patterns that society considers “moral”.
  • Develops from the interaction of the child and environment in active interaction.
  • Context is crucial
a cognitive view of morality kohlberg s theory
A Cognitive View of MoralityKohlberg’s Theory
  • Moral Reasoning (Not necessarily behavior)
  • Level I – Preconventional Morality
    • Stage 1) Tangible consequences
    • Stage 2) Hedonistic get rewards/avoid pun
  • Level II - Conventional Morality
    • Stage 3) Follows rules to get social approval
    • Stage 4) Follow conventional rules to support social order
  • Level III – Postconventional Morality
    • Stage 5) Have a social contract to do what is right
    • Stage 6) Universal principles of justice, democracy, etc.
taxonomy of moral rules pelaez moreno
Taxonomy of Moral Rules(Pelaez & Moreno)
  • Explicit vs. Implicit
  • Accurate vs. Inaccurate (false or inconsistent)
  • Complex (multiple contingencies) vs. Simple (single contingency)
  • Other vs. Self-Derived source
  • 16 possible combinations.
development of rule compliance self instruction
Development of Rule Compliance & Self-Instruction
  • 1. Early – Parents prompt & reinforce compliance to simple rules.
  • 2. Generalized compliance (rule following becomes response class).
  • 3. Others (e.g., teachers, grandparents) add rules. Child learns to discriminate which rules will have consequences.
  • 4. Adults prompt child to give own rules (self-instruction).
  • 5. Self-instruction generalizes to novel situations – Generalized self-instruction.
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