Recent advances in the spectroscopy of planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres what is out there
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RECENT ADVANCES IN THE SPECTROSCOPY OF PLANETARY AND EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES : WHAT IS OUT THERE ?. Hitran 2010 Pierre Drossart LESIA, Observatoire de Paris. Spectra of Giant Planets. Day side (Reflected sunlight). Thermal emission. XO-1b Tinetti et al, 2010. G. Kuiper, ApJ, 1947.

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Recent advances in the spectroscopy of planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres what is out there


Hitran 2010

Pierre Drossart

LESIA, Observatoire de Paris

Spectra of giant planets
Spectra of Giant Planets

Day side (Reflected sunlight)

Thermal emission

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

XO-1b Tinetti et al, 2010

G. Kuiper, ApJ, 1947

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Line formation in Jupiter’s atmosphere (CH44 band)

Growth of line through vertical atmospheric integration

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Spectra of jupiter line formation in the thermal spectrum simulations at high low resolution
Spectra of Jupiter: Line formation in the thermal spectrumSimulations at high/low resolution

Radiative transfer in

Planetary atmospheres

Nicmos transmission spectroscopy
NICMOS: transmission spectroscopy

XO-1b, terminator

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Tinetti, et al., ApJ, 2010

Thermal structure retrieval
Thermal structure retrieval

o Machalek et al., 2009

+ Knutson et al., 2007

1500 K

1000 K

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Tinetti, et al., ApJ, 2010

Non lte emissions of ch 4 in giant planets
Non-LTE emissions of CH4 in giant planets

ISO observation of CH4 non-LTE emission on Jupiter

Drossart et al, ESA-SP 427, 1999

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Ch 4 non lte emission in exoplanets
CH4 non LTE emission in exoplanets ?

Swain et al, Nature, 2010


Hitran 2010 - Cambridge


Saturn spectroscopic observations in the infrared

CIRS has two combined interferometers, operating in the far-infrared (10-600 cm-1) and mid-infrared (600-1400 cm-1).

VIMS is an imaging visible and near infrared spectrometer (0.3-5 micron)

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Saturn 80°S at 100 and 300 km


Flasar et al., Sci. 2005

C4H2 et CH3C2H


Radiance (W cm-2 sr-1 / cm-1)



Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Saturn at 80°S 100 and 300 km



Flasar et al., Sci. 2005

Radiance (W cm-2 sr-1 / cm-1)

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

First results from herschel in the solar system

First results from Herschel in the solar system

First publications in Astronomy & Astrophysics – May 2010

Instruments et observations
Instruments et observations


  • Observatory mode  access from proposals

    • “Key Programs” (– x 100 h, “legacy”), priority

    • normal programs (AO 20 may 2010)






Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Neptune spectrum from pacs
Neptune spectrum from PACS

Lellouch et al., A&A 2010

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Methane in the stratosphere of neptune
Methane in the stratosphere of Neptune

Lellouch et al. A & A 2010

Orton, Encrenaz et al. 2007

Venus atmosphere
Venus atmosphere

  • Venus Express observations

    A new start in Venus atmosphere observations after a long gap since Venera 15 and Vega russian missions

    Next mission Akatsuki (Jaxa)

    Launched on May 20

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Venus nir day side spectrum
Venus NIR day side spectrum

Venus Express/VIRTIS spectra in the NIR (day side)

Most of the absorptions : CO2 !

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Depression in the polar region
Depression in the polar region

Grey are VMC images

N. Ignatiev

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Ignatiev et al., JGRE 2009

Telluric planets venus thermal emission in the dark side
Telluric planets : Venus thermal emission in the dark side

  • Thermal emission originating from the 0-45 km altitude range in spectral windows

  • Accurate knowledge of CO2 opacity is crucial

    • Weak allowed bands

    • Pressure-induced bands

    • Far wing line shape

  • Deep atmosphere of Venus

    Challenge for spectroscopy : CO2 up to 90 bars, 450 K at the surface

    Database : HITEMP, CDSD-750










1.0 m

1.27 m

1.18 m

1.74 m

2.3 m

1.10 m

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Venus nightside windows2.3 m

  • CFHT/FTS observations (Res = 0.15 cm-1) [Taylor et al. 1997]

  • Altitude range: 26-45 km

  • Absorbers: CO2, H2O, HDO, CO, OCS, SO2, HF


Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Deep atmosphere of venus by virtis venus express
Deep atmosphere of Venus by VIRTIS/Venus Express



Marq et al., JGRE, 2008

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Venus day side observations at 4.3 micron :

CO2non – LTE emissions

Gilli, Lopez-Valverde et al., JGRE 2009

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Gravity waves observed in co 2 non lte emission of venus
Gravity waves observed in CO2 non-LTE emission of Venus

Day side up/night side down

Center on South pole

Polar vortex in red

Garcia et al., JGRE, 2009

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

O 2 intensity night side emission of venus at 1 27 micron
O2 intensity : night side emission of Venus at 1.27 micron

Mean vertical

brightness = 0.5 MR

1.27 micron emission of Venus

Gérard et al., Icarus, 2009


Hitran 2010 - Cambridge


Piccioni et al., PNAS, 2008

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Mars exploration in the xxi th century
Mars exploration in the XXIth century

The War of the Worlds : the Revenge

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2006)

Coming soon…

Mars Science Laboratory (2011)

Mars Trace Gas Orbiter (2016)

Mars Odyssey


Mars Express (2003)

Mars Exploration rovers (2003)

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

The infrared spectrum of Martian atmosphere

Solar reflected Thermal






Reflected sunlight -> mineralogy

Thermal emission -> T(z), winds

ISO-SWS Lellouch et al., 2000

The 1237-1243 cm-1 spectrum of Mars(TEXES, IRTF)All lines identified down to depths of 0.3%S/N > 1000 in the continuum

H2O2, 10-7


TEXES data

First IR detection of H2O2 on Mars

H2O2 and CO2 lines at 1241.6 cm-1




Encrenaz et al. Icarus 2004

Mars trace gas orbiter nasa esa 2016
Mars Trace Gas OrbiterNASA / ESA 2016

  • Science objectives

    • Detection of trace molecules CH4, C2H2, C2H6, NO2, N2O, H2S, SO2, H2O, O3, isotopologues

      • Determine the type of activiy : geological, or biological from the molecular ratio

      • Characterize spatial and temporal variations

      • Find the correlations between trace species to constrain the chemistry

    • Localize the sources

      • Trace the origin of gases

      • Determine uncertainty of a landing mission for EXOMARS

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Some trace gases to search for with tgo nadir and limb observations
Some trace gases to search for with TGOnadir and limb observations

  • The spectral domain has been optimized for several simultaneous gas detection

  • Sensitivity to methane

    • 1ppb in 6 s  50 km2 cartography

    • 50 ppt in solar occultation mode for detection

Conclusions about exo planetary atmospheres spectroscopy
Conclusions about (exo)planetary atmospheres spectroscopy

What is out there ?

At first order : CO2 , CH4 , H2O , CO

… but we still do not fully understand the spectroscopy of these molecules!

  • Isotopes,

  • line shapes,

  • CIA,

  • line mixing,

  • relaxation coefficients,

  • etc.

    Trace constituents

    Telluric planets : H2O2, OH, H2CO

    Giant planets : NH3, PH3, H2S

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Acknowledgements to
Acknowledgements to

  • Bruno Bézard

  • Régis Courtin

  • Emmanuel Lellouch

  • Dominique Bockelee

  • Giovanna Tinetti

  • Athena Coustenis

  • Thérèse Encrenaz

  • Giuseppe Piccioni

  • Miguel Lopez-Valverde

  • Raphaël Garcia

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge