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Chlorophyll and Phytoplankton in Lakes PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chlorophyll and Phytoplankton in Lakes. Emily DeBolt Josh Conway. Chlorophyll and phytoplankton tell the story of lake productivity. Why study chlorophyll and plankton How to collect data Interpreting data from local lakes. Why study chlorophyll and plankton.

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Chlorophyll and Phytoplankton in Lakes

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Chlorophyll and Phytoplankton

in Lakes

Emily DeBolt

Josh Conway


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Chlorophyll and phytoplankton

tell the story of lake productivity.

  • Why study chlorophyll and plankton

  • How to collect data

  • Interpreting data from local lakes


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Why study chlorophyll and plankton

  • Lake productivity depends on basin morphology, light, nutrients, temperature, etc.

  • determines biota present


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How to collect chlorophyll data

  • All phytoplankton have chlorophyll

  • Chlorophyll values are used to estimate phytoplankton biomass and its potential photosynthetic capacity

  • Microscopic cell counts would be best – but too time consuming

  • A spectrophotometer is used to measure the total chlorophyll absorption in the water column.


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How to collect chlorophyll data

  • In the lab:

  • Filtered 250 ml of water from each sample,

  • and ran through spectrophotometer in 10 ml samples.

  • So when working with chlorophyll values from lab,

  • had to divide values by 25 to account for the

  • concentration of water filtered


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How to collect phytoplankton data

  • In the field:

  • Kimmerer bottle with marked line and messenger

  • Sample water at epilimnion, metalimnion, and hypolimnion

  • Fill 1 liter bottle for each sample

  • Lugols preservative in each sample

  • In the lab:

  • Counted the number of phytoplankton present in each

  • sample.

  • (note: phytoplankton counts are from 2004)


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Interpreting data from local lakes

Rich Lake

Arbutus Lake

OnondagaCatlin

OneidaGreen


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Oneida Lake


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Oneida Lake

73%

Chrysophyta (Bacillariophyceae)

Melosira

Cyclotella

Ulothrix

Stephanodiscus

Aviacosira

Stictodiscus

18%

Chlorophyta

unknown

Scenedesmus

9%

Cyanophyta

Romeria


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Oneida Lake

Most chlorophyll in the hypolimnion ??


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Oneida Lake

Parameters:

epi: 1mhypo: 8m

SA: 207 km2

Eutrophic, Dimictic

Mean depth: 6.8 m

Max depth: 16.8 m

Length: 20.9 mi

Width: 5.8 mi

  • Highest chlorophyll values in hypo!!

  • Most common phyto are diatoms (which are traditionally more common in early summer)

  • Light makes it all the way to the bottom – so plankton can live there in this lake!


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Rich Lake


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Rich Lake

48%34%

Chlorophyta Cyanophyta

Cladophora Anabaena

Closterium Merismopedia

Oscillatoria

Spirulina

Micricystis

18%

Crysophyta (Bacillariophyceae)

Cyclotella

Melosira

Stephanodiscus


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Rich Lake phytoplankton

  • Cosmarium: desmids which are tolerant of acidic conditions

  • Microsystis: BG that is common blooming nuisance

  • Oscillatoria: indicator of beginning eutrophism


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Rich Lake

Values only for epi and meta obtained


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Rich Lake

Epi: 1m

Meta: 6m

Hypo: 11m

Mostly greens and blue-greens

- not sure why…

All chlorophyll < 1 ug/L so

possibly an oligotrophic lake

Note Oscillatoria presence!!


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Catlin Lake


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Catlin Lake

50%

Chlorophyta

Gonatozygon

Eudorina

50%

Chrysophyta

LGR

Synura


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Catlin Lake

Phytoplankton mostly in epilimnion


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Catlin Lake

  • We have no additional info on Catlin…

  • Since there is no BG, I would guess it is oligotrophic


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Onondaga Lake


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Onondaga Lake

64%

Chlorophyta

Pandorina

unknown

Oedogonium

Pediastrum

Protococcus

Scenedesmus

Gleocapsa

4%

Euglenophyta

Euglena

8%

Pyrophyta

(dinoflagellates)

Peridinium

24%

Cyanophyta

Romeria

Microcystis

Aphanocapsa

LGR


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Onondaga Lake

Chlorophyll decreases with depth

Highest chlorophyll values!


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Onondaga Lake

Epi: 1m

Meta: 12m

Hypo: 14m

Polluted – excess phosphorous and anoxic hypo

Green algae most dominant, but also some BG which makes

sense bc Onondaga has highest phosphorous of any of the

lakes by far (all other lakes < 2 uM, Onondaga almost 15 uM)

Calanoid copepods were most common in all lakes except

Onondaga – where Daphnia were most abundant – Daphnia

do well with good quality food which might make sense with

the high green algae levels


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Arbutus Lake


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20% Chrysophyta (Bacillariophyceae)

Navicula

Melosira

Nitzestia

Tabellaria

10% Chrysophyta (Chrysophyceae)

Synura

Dinobrium

Arbutus Lake

23 % Chlorophyta

Cladophora

Unknown

Scenedesmus

14% Cyanophyta

Unknown

Spirulina

23% Pyrophyta

Ceratium

Peridinium

5% Euglenophyta

Euglena

5% Cryptophytas

Cryptomonas


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Arbutus Lake

Phytoplankton are hanging out at the metalimnion


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Arbutus Lake

Most phytoplankton diversity of all

the lakes

Epi: 1m

Meta: 6m

Hypo: 7m

Secchi disk at 3 m, so not sure why most phyto would

be down at 6 m (think critical mixing depth)

Ceratium

Spirulina

Euglena

Cryptomonas


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Green Lake

The only phytoplankton present:

Chlorophyta: Pediastrum


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Green Lake

Secchi disk at 9m – so good visibility in the lake

Epi: 1m

Meta: 11m

Hypo: 15m

Chemo: 19m

Monomo: 35m

Highest chlorophyll values at chemocline

– must be reading chlorophyll from

the purple sulfur bacteria

Hardwater, meromicitc lake, 52 m deep, very

oligotrphic


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All lakes chlorophyll values

Onondaga has highest values, Deer has lowest

No real consistent patterns…


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Chlorophyll from the multiprobe


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Chlorophyll from the multiprobe


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Comparison of multiprobe and spectrophotometer data


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Comparison of Lake Depths at Layers


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Comparison of Epilimnion chlorophyll data


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Comparison of Metalimnion chlorophyll data


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Comparison of Hypolimnion chlorophyll data


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What does it all mean?(chlorophyll values)

  • Seemed to get more chlorophyll in hypolimnion than we would have thought

  • Bad sampling? Or serious lake mixing?


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What does it all mean?(phytoplankton)

  • In general the pattern throughout the year goes:

  • Diatoms (spring)

  • Greens (summer)

  • Blue –greens (late summer)

  • Dinoflagellates (winter)

  • With blue-greens dominating in late summer

  • But we did not really see this – we had mostly greens


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What does it all mean?

Lake: dominant phyto: trophic state (?)

  • Oneida: diatoms(E)

  • Rich: greens(O)

  • Catlin: greens and goldens(O)

  • Onondaga: greens(E)

  • Arbutus: very diverse!(O)

  • Green: greens(O)


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Average Light Coefficients (K)

7

6

5

4

K

3

2

1

0

Oneida

Green

Deer

Arbutus

Onondaga

Rich

Lake

What does it all mean?

Green had deepest light – but both Green and Oneida had

highest light coefficients (odd bc Green is oligotrphic and

Oneida is eutrophic… zebra mussels maybe…)


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Does more light mean more chlorophyll?


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  • Arbutus and Onondaga had highest chlorophyll values

  • Onondaga also had highest phosphorous values

  • But Arbutus had low values!


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  • So if more light doesn’t mean more chlorophyll and more phosphorous doesn’t mean more chlorophyll then what does!!


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When did we sample?

ADK lakes: Sept 9-11

Onedia: Sept 21-22

Onondaga: Sept 28-29

Green: Oct 5-6

Would have thought possibly lakes visited later

more mixed and lakes visited earlier still stratified…


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Oneida and Deer have mixed – the rest are still stratified


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Controls of Phytoplankton Growth

Phytoplankton growth affected by temperature, light

Nutrients. Right before FT is a good time for them –

But after turnover is not so good - although sometimes

Turnover actually increases nutrients so there is a bloom.

Since we found so many algae in hypo layer – does that meanall lakes were mixed? This doesn’t appear to be true basedon the temp data…


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What was missing and what were our errors?

  • Counting phytoplankton in lab did not work very well!

  • Problems with identification

  • Problems with preservation of phytoplankton??

  • Collection of water and data from the lakes


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Images satellite de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon (off New Brunswick, Canada)

Phytoplankton blooms


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