Chapter 7
Download
1 / 13

Chapter 7 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 115 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 7 . Ionic and Metallic Bonding. Ionic and Metallic Bonding. Ionic Bond:  bond between 2 oppositely charged ions Cation (+) & Anion (-) Metal & Nonmetal Metal & Polyatomic ion Properties of Ionic Bonds:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 7 ' - lyndon


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Ionic and Metallic Bonding


Ionic and metallic bonding
Ionic and Metallic Bonding

  • Ionic Bond:

  •  bond between 2 oppositely charged ions

    Cation (+) & Anion (-)

    Metal & Nonmetal

    Metal & Polyatomic ion

  • Properties of Ionic Bonds:

  •  Involve transfer of electron between metal and nonmetal

  •  Very Strong

  • Form “salts” or Group I hydroxides

  •  only 1 force (forces/bonds between + to – ions the same)


Ionic compound
Ionic Compound:

  • Compounds made up of (+) and (-) ions

  • Ex; Na + Cl  Na+Cl-

  • Na (Ne)3s1 Cl (Ne)3s23p5

  • -

  • + Called a “formula unit”

  • Properties of Ionic Compounds:

  • crystalline solids at room temperature

  • High melting points (indicates strength of bonds)

  • tend to dissolve in water

  • conduct electricity in “molten” and aqueous state

Cl

Na


Look at the reaction of na cl to make nacl 3 step process that occurs simultaneously
Look at the reaction of Na + Cl to make NaCl: (3 step process that occurs simultaneously)

1. Na + ionization energy  Na+ + 1e-(endothermic)

  • Cl + 1e-  Cl-1 + electron affinity energy (exothermic)

  • Na+ + Cl-  NaCl + lattice energy (exothermic)

    Net result is Exothermic


  • Lattice Energy:

  •  energy released when oppositely charged ions bond to form a crystal lattice or solid salt

  • Compounds form to get lowest possible energy

  • Atoms react to achieve noble gas configuration (stable octet)

  • For atoms that attract, when they come together ENERGY is ____________

  • therefore energy is ________to pull them apart.

  • Bonds Forming _________energy.

  • Bonds Breaking ________energy.

released

required

give off

exothermic

absorb

endothermic


Crystal structure of ionic compounds
Crystal Structure of Ionic Compounds:

Strong IONIC BOND holding the + and -

together.

Regular repeating pattern (lattice)

Crystal Arrangement: __________________________

Glue between the ions in an ionic compound is ___________________________

Valence electrons: ____________________________

Coordination Number: ___________________________

Shape of the crystal depends on ___________________

NaCl is ________________________________

An electrostatic attraction between the + and – ions

e- involved in bonding (highest occupied shell)

# of + charged ions surrounding - ions

size and arrangement of ions

cubic and its coordination # is 6


oppositely charged ions

nonmetals

lowest whole # ratio of ions OR atoms

  • Ionic Compounds: Composed of _____________________________

  • Molecular Compounds: Composed of _______________

  • Empirical Formula: __________________________________

  • Molecular Formula: __________________________________

  • Ionic compounds do not have “molecular formulas” because they are not composed of molecules which have a unique association between atoms.

  • Bothionic and molecular compounds have __________________

  • Onlymolecular compounds have __________________________

  • For molecular compounds, their empirical and molecular

    formulas may be ________________

ratio of atoms in a molecule of a

compound. How it actually exists.

EMPERICAL FORMULAS

MOLECULAR FORMULAS

THE SAME


Determine if the compound is Ionic or Molecular and if it is and Empirical Formula, Molecular Formula or Both

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

CH2O

YES

YES

YES

YES


Compare salt crystal to ice crystal
Compare SALT Crystal to ICE Crystal: and Empirical Formula, Molecular Formula or Both

Distinct Units

Intermolecular

Forces between 2 adjacent water

molecules

Intramolecular

Forces make water

ICE: Molecular Compound:

Contains TWO forces.

Melting Point is comparatively low

compared to salt because breaking weaker intermolecular bond between 2 different water mc’s, not strong covalent bond between 0-H that makes water.

No Distinct Units

  • SALT: Ionic Compound:

  • Contains ONE force.

  • Melting Point is high because

  • only one strong ionic bond must be broken (400°C)


2 forces of molecular compounds
2 Forces of Molecular Compounds and Empirical Formula, Molecular Formula or Both

  • 1. Intramolecular force:

  • 2. Intermolecular force:

Strong covalent bonds WITHIN water molecules. (Holds H & O atoms together) MAKES WATER MC.

Weak bonds BETWEEN different water molecules. The slightly – oxygen end of one water mc is attracted to the slightly + end of a nearby water mc.


Metallic bonds and metallic properties

+ and Empirical Formula, Molecular Formula or Both

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Metallic Bonds and Metallic Properties

  • Metals are made up of ________________________ (positive ions) rather than neutral atoms.

  • The valence electrons of metal atoms can be thought of as a sea of electrons.

closely packed CATIONS


Metallic bonds
Metallic Bonds and Empirical Formula, Molecular Formula or Both

  • Attraction of free floating valence electrons for the + charged metal ions.

  • Crystalline Structure of Metals

  • Metal atoms are arranged in very

    _______________________________________ 

  • Especially since they are all the same size.

compact and orderly patterns.


Alloys
Alloys and Empirical Formula, Molecular Formula or Both

2 or more elements.

  • are mixture composed of ___________________

  • (at least one must be a metal)

  • Ex. Brass is a physical blend of

    _______________

  • Steel is a blend of ___________________

copper & zinc.

iron and carbon


ad