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1. Brief images of Imperialism Page 613-656
2. A great “congress” was held at Berlin in 1878 to help solve the crisis over Russian intervention in the Ottoman empire.
3. Also, there was the question of how to divvy up Africa in an orderly manner… Of course, no one asked the native Africans.
Over time, “warring” tribes would be placed together
Straight lines in Africa and the Middle East clearly indicate “imperial” meddling.
5. In the treaty of Berlin, Bismarck took nothing…but be aware that the Germans were more than prepared to exert influence in the future.
6. The Berlin conference laid down certain rules-- A European power with holdings on the coast had prior rights
Occupation must include administrators or troops
Each power must give notice to the others of what territories it considered its own
THE REAL SCRAMBLE BEGAN!
7. The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire made it possible for the European powers to meddle in North Africa—Britain and France, especially.
8. Britain moved into Egypt in 1882—but they had already bought a substantial amount of shares in the Suez canal in 1874…
9. Egypt became a British Protectorate…
10. Of the Northern African nations, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained free of European control…
11. Italy tried to conquer Ethiopia, but the Italians were defeated. The Italian prisoners were castrated and sent back home. Italy would not forget this.
13. FASHODA INCIDENT [Fashoda Incident] , 1898, diplomatic dispute between France and Great Britain. Toward the end of the 19th cent., while Britain was seeking to establish a continuous strip of territory from Cape Town to Cairo, France desired to establish an overland route from the Red Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
15. The French backed down—but a wave of hatred swept over France as they realized the British “Bullies” had got their way.
16. Soon after that, the British got involved in the Boer War—The Germans supported the Boers, while the British were ultimately victorious—we learned about this war earlier.
17. The Partition of Africa continued---The Congo, controlled by Belgium under King Leopold II, became synonymous with the abuses of Imperialism.
19. Wild Rubber was in demand form many years….before domestic rubber trees would grown and come into production.
20. Quotas and demands on the tribes led to the deaths of thousands.
22. Children were maimed and killed as a warning to those who did not obey the quotas…
25. This is the real story behind Joseph Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness.”
26. The British turned India into a supplier of their raw materials.
27. But the relationship was not reciprocal as compared to the other colonies of Australia and New Zealand—who mainly had white settlers. The white peoples were always favored over the colonial peoples..
28. Many of the upper crust Indians were educated by the British…thus speaking perfect English and learning Liberal Western Ideas. Those ideas included concepts of freedom and liberty for all.
29. They began to demand more of a voice in the governing of India.
30. Two great leaders Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatmas Gandhi would be educated at English Schools.
31. Imperialism highlighted conflicts with Russia and Britain. Russia moved in on the aging Ottoman Empire.
32. The Kingdom of Persia was loaned money by the British—the Persian Gulf became the “price” for this loan.
33. Oil became a highly valued commodity around 1900. Persia fell into competing Zones—Iraq, Iran, Kuwait and Afghanistan are all modern nations created out of the ancient state of Persia. This is a contributing factor to the disruption in the Middle East to this day.
34. China was also ripe for the picking. We have already learned about the opium wars.
35. The Dowager Empress, called the “Dragon Queen” encouraged revolt against the Westerners.
36. In China, there was the “Order of Literary Patriotic Harmonious Fists”—but Westerners called them “The Boxers”
38. The Boxers ripped up train tracks, killed missionaries, and were against all things Western.
39. The Boxer rebellion was put down, but the Chinese government struggled to continue their Westernization yet suppress Rebellions.
41. Japan would need to learn from China’s exploitation—or else they would face the same..
42. In our film, “The Battle of Tsushima” we will learn how Japan handled its Westernization process.