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AICE INTERNATIONAL HISTORY: THEME 3. The Crisis of Communism and the End of the Cold War. Sino-Soviet Conflict . 1950s Death of Stalin Incompatible personalities-distrust between Khrushchev and Mao Different Interest of the Russian and Chinese Empires Doctrinal Dispute.

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AICE INTERNATIONAL HISTORY: THEME 3

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AICE INTERNATIONAL HISTORY: THEME 3

The Crisis of Communism and the End of the Cold War


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Sino-Soviet Conflict

  • 1950s

  • Death of Stalin

  • Incompatible personalities-distrust between Khrushchev and Mao

  • Different Interest of the Russian and Chinese Empires

  • Doctrinal Dispute


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Sino-Soviet Conflict

  • Mao resented the fact that the Russians had done very little to help Chinese communists

  • Khrushchev visited Beijing in 1954-chief of world communism?

  • Mao- believed that he should be the world’s leading communist

  • Deterioration set in about 1956- disagreements over De-Stalinization (Mao not consulted)


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Sino-Soviet Conflict

  • Khrushchev supports non-communists in Asia- India, Burma, Afghanistan

  • 1957- Khrushchev promised China samples of nuclear material and information about the construction of nuclear weapons

  • Mao- wanted to use Russia’s nuclear armory as a diplomatic advantage against the US

  • Mao- encourage revolutionary movements in Asia, Africa, and Latin America


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Sino-Soviet Conflict

  • Khrushchev- did not support the Chinese view that the communist powers could do more

  • Chinese maintained the orthodox Marxist position that war was inevitable

  • Moscow was more worried than Beijing about the risks of escalation to nuclear war

  • Russians and Chinese disagreed over the methods to be used to turn Asia, Africa, and Latin America away from the US


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Sino-Soviet Conflict

  • China only wanted to help communists- Russians willing to help non-communist revolutionary movements

  • Russians were not willing to support Chinese attempts to regain Taiwan

  • Khrushchev was willing to set up nuclear bases in China but only on the understanding that the Russians would be in control

  • Russians pulled support for the Great Leap forward


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Sino-Soviet Conflict

  • August 1959- Khrushchev went to the US for talks with Eisenhower at Camp David

  • The Camp David negotiations left out Chinese interests- Taiwan

  • 1960- withdrawal of 12,000 Russian technicians from China


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Sino-Soviet Conflict

  • 1964- Khrushchev was overthrown

  • Possible reconciliation between the Soviets and Chinese…

  • Chinese refused to attend a conference of communist parties in Moscow in 1965


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Sino-Soviet Conflict

  • Russian embassy in Beijing was attacked in 1967

  • China condemned the Russian invasion of Czechoslovakia

  • 1969- Border disputes almost led to war

  • Russian forces in the east were increased in the 1970s and 1980s


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Sino-Soviet Conflict

  • 1979- Russian threat to China was magnified by the establishment of Russian naval and air bases in Vietnam

  • 1970-71- China admitted to the UN (Security Council)

  • 1971- Nixon reversed American policy towards China when he established diplomatic relations with China


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The Disintegration of the USSR

  • 1964-1982 Leonid Brezhnev

  • Domestic problems- economy, corruption

  • Empire in central and eastern Europe became unsustainable

  • By 1985 the USSR could neither feed its people nor provide an acceptable standard of living


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The Disintegration of the USSR

  • 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev

  • Intelligent, courageous, and politically agile

  • Embarked upon a course of economic and political reform (glasnost, perestroika)

  • Glasnost- openness

  • Perestroika- restructuring of the economy


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The Disintegration of the USSR

  • Glasnost

  • End to the falsification of economic performance

  • Inroads on censorship and habits of subservience

  • Abolition of the Communist Party’s monopoly of power

  • Reforming both the state political system and the economy


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The Disintegration of the USSR

  • Perestroika

  • Greater independence for co-operatives and managers of state enterprises

  • Introduction of regulation by market forces

  • Difficulties in going from one system to another

  • Development of the reforms was tentative and shapeless


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The Disintegration of the USSR

  • The political and economic transformation of the USSR was slowed by nationalist movements within the Soviet Union

  • 12 of the 15 republics all had grievances and disruptive separatist aspirations

  • Three Baltic republics, Moldavia, three in the Caucasus and five in central Asia.

  • http://www.history.com/videos/the-fall-of-the-soviet-union#the-fall-of-the-soviet-union


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Comparing Policies- Writing Activity


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The Disintegration of the USSR

  • Gorbachev’s failures?

  • Devalued and demoted the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (still wanted some modified form)

  • Economic policy was confusing and the economic situation catastrophic

  • No foreign exchange, a budget deficit, all industries losing money


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The Disintegration of the USSR

  • Gorbachev successes?

  • Boldness in abandoning the Soviet empire in Europe

  • Initiatives in the mutual disarmament of the Cold war

  • Confronted the most daunting problems of the Soviet Union- failed political and economic system


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The Disintegration of the USSR

  • System failure

  • Gorbachev failed because he was trying to reform the unreformable

  • Soviet communism relied on central planning and was not familiar with the function of a market economy

  • Lasted as long as it did because of the tyranny of the rulers- people sacrificed because they were afraid


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The Disintegration of the USSR

  • The collapse of the Soviet Union condemned the communist system

  • Capitalism triumphant but deeply unsatisfying

  • 1991- Boris Yeltsin takes power and inherits not the Soviet Union but Russia


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End of the Cold War

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fmtNJdX0Q44

  • What was the main idea of the video clip? Provide details to support.

  • What actions did Reagan take that accelerated the collapse of the Cold War?

  • Evaluate the strength of the Reagan foundation’s argument.

  • Does your group agree or disagree with the video’s argument regarding Reagan’s role in the Cold War?


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End of the Cold War

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jfLDKFwDSIg

  • What is the main idea of the video clip? Provide details to support.

  • What is meant by the term “hero worship” in the context of the end of the Cold War?

  • Evaluate the strength of the author’s argument.

  • Does your group agree or disagree with the video’s argument regarding what caused the collapse of the Soviet Union?


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Soviets in Afghanistan

  • Muslim Afghanistan had remained a nonaligned nation in the Cold War until 1978

  • Pro-Soviet government introduced radical reforms in education and family law- led to civil war

  • Islamic religious leaders objected to the change brought by the communist People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan.

  • 1979- beginning of Soviet intervention


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Soviets in Afghanistan

  • With the help of Soviet forces, Babrak Karmal tried to establish control over Afghanistan

  • 1979-1988- Soviet forces fought a brutal campaign against Afghan mujahedeen, or Islamic warriors

  • Weapons and money from the United States sustained the Islamic fighters in their struggle

  • CIA provided fighters with ground-to-air Stinger Missiles


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Soviets in Afghanistan

  • 1986- Soviet leadership replaced Karmal with the equally unpopular Muhammad Najibullah

  • United Nations negotiated a cease-fire in 1988 and a full Soviet withdrawal took place the following year

  • Fighting cont. after the Soviet retreat with the Taliban gaining control of the country by 1996


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Soviets in Afghanistan

  • Experience in Afghanistan demonstrated the declining power of the Soviet Union

  • Afghanistan: Soviet Union

  • Vietnam: United States

  • Taxed both nations and caused dissatisfaction with Cold War policies- undermined the prestige of the superpowers

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8Vmx9Pg5Js


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Soviets in Afghanistan

  • Draw/paint a picture or write a fictional story/poem about Afghanistan and its connection to the Cold War

  • Include facts related to the Soviet Union, United States, and the Taliban

  • Attempt to artistically answer the following question- What does history teach us about our current situation in Afghanistan?


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Timeline: 234-240

  • Create a timeline about 10 events in central and eastern Europe after Stalin’s death.

  • Focus only on areas of unrest.

  • Make sure to include the date and what happened.


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