Mind Control: Dual Processes. Wegner (1994)mental control and its ironies flow from the operation of a simple mechanism: the interplay of an intentional operating process and an ironic monitoring process.CyberneticsWiener (1948) noted that it takes 2 processes to control anything at
1. Mechanics of Mind Control
2. Mind Control: Dual Processes Wegner (1994)
mental control and its ironies flow from the operation of a simple mechanism: the interplay of an intentional operating process and an ironic monitoring process.
Wiener (1948) noted that it takes 2 processes to control anything at all.
3. Is the Mind Like a Thermostat?
4. Dynamics of Control control involves changing something to a certain criterion, thus processes are needed to provide both the change and the assessment of success in reaching the criterion.
Miller, Galanter, & Pribram (1960) - TOTE
goal-directed behavior is the result of 2 processes: the operate and test mechanisms in a test-operate-test- exit (TOTE) unit - mind as a thermostat!
5. Wegner’s Theory of Mental Control the two processes underlying mental control are cognitive search processes that increase the accessibility of stimuli. Each process is an attentional process that orients the system toward a particular set of inputs.
the 2 processes differ with respect to their:
(a) target search, (b) degree of consciousness
(c) attentional demands, (d) conditions of activation
6. Operating Process search target
the desire for a mental state creates an operating process that seeks items consistent with that state (e.g., concentration). The desire to avoid a mental state (e.g., suppression) creates an operating process that seeks items inconsistent with that state. Thus, the operator looks for distractors in an attempt to provide mental control.
the operating process is present in consciousness. It is the ‘subjective’ feeling of doing in mental life.
the operating process is an effortful (i.e., controlled) mental process (i.e, it demands attentional resources - Bargh, 1989; Hasher & Zacks, 1979; Posner & Snyder, 1975; Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977). As an effortful mental activity, it is vulnerable to competing task demands.
The operating process is activated by the monitoring process. Whenever the monitor is satisfied that a failure of the intentional operation has been found, the operating process is implemented. Thus, the operator is a non-continuous process, it occurs cyclically in response to failure.
10. Monitoring Process search target
the monitoring process searches for indications of the failure of mental control (i.e., it searches for the unwanted thought, impulse, or memory). Thus, the monitor reviews potentially conscious material. A search attuned for failure is uncomplicated as it needs only to hold a single template against which input can be compared.
disabling the monitor (Luria, 1966)
frontal lobe dysfunction (Stuss & Benson, 1987)
during mental control attempts, the monitoring process is usually not reflected in conscious thought.
the monitoring process is less effortful than the operating process, thus it is less likely to be disturbed by concurrent tasks.
the monitoring process is activated by the initiation of mental control. Once the intention to control the mind is implemented, the monitoring process runs continuously until the intention is relaxed.
13. Conditions of Irony intention to control must be present
competition for attentional resources
dual-tasks and mental control
14. Don’t Think About? Wegner & Erber (1992)
15. Task word association task
think about or don’t think about house
respond with associate
manipulation of cognitive load
time pressure or no pressure
under time pressure, suppressors responded with the forbidden item (i.e., house)
16. Rebound and Hyperaccessibility: Wegner et al. (1993) Stroop Task
suppress or concentrate on house
report color of ink - house kettle
manipulation of cognitive load
digit rehearsal or control (within subjects)
on high-load trials, suppressors showed impaired colour naming to target item (hence hyperaccessible)
17. Mood Control: Wegner et al. (1993) recall either happy or sad life event
sad event (try not to be sad, no instruction, be sad)
happy event (try not to be happy, no instruction, be happy)
manipulation of load
digit rehearsal or control (between subjects)
mood control produced ironic effects under load (trying not to be sad, made people sad)
18. While You Were Sleeping
19. Try to Sleep: Wegner et al. (1993) play cassette when you get into bed
sleep as quickly as you can
sleep whenever you want
rest of the tape - cognitive load
New Age music or brass band
time taken to get to sleep
20. Sleeping Beauty
21. The Putt and the Pendulum: Wegner et al. (1998)
22. Tasks Task 1 - Chevreul’s Pendulum
don’t move on forbidden axis
digit rehearsal or control
Task 2 - Putt
don’t overshoot the hole
digit rehearsal or control
ironic actions under conditions of load
23. Suppressing Stereotypes: Ironic Effects
24. Skinhead Studies: Macrae et al. (1994)
25. Irony Reconsidered routes to rebound
distractors become reminders (white bear)
attentional depletion (house)
frequency of priming
what does the monitor do?
priming - another route to rebound?
26. Expt 1: Suppress Your Stereotypes Phase 1 - descriptive task - day in the life of a target
Phase 2 - day in the life of a new group member
Measure - rated stereotypicality of the passages
27. Stereotype Rebound
28. But What About Social Behavior?
29. Expt 2: Take a Seat Phase 1 - describe day in the life of a target (skinhead)
Phase 2 - next study (meet the skinhead), empty lab, take a seat (7 available)
Measure - social distance
30. The Significant Buttock!
31. Stereotype Hyperaccessibility rebound
with and without resource depletion
accessibility following the relaxation of suppression
monitor in action
32. Expt 3: Press a Button Phase 1 - describe day in the life of a skinhead
Phase 2 - lexical decision task
accessibility of stereotype
33. Stereotype Accessibility
34. Other Ironic Effects: Suppression is Effortful forming impression of others
categorical plus individuating material
individuation is effortful (Fiske & Neuberg, 1990)
suppression is effortful (Wegner, 1994)
which information is remembered
35. Form an Impression: Macrae et al. (1996) form impression of skinhead (audiotaped description)
stereotypic content - high, low, none
probe-reaction task (turn off the light)
multiple-choice test about target
36. Probe Performance
37. Target Knowledge
38. Expt 2: Suppression and Memory form impression of elderly man (videotape)
material - stereotypic and neutral
memory tested after delay of 7 days
39. Target Recollections
40. Issues: Moderating Influences on Stereotype Suppression perceiver characteristics
prejudice level (Monteith et al. 1997)
nature of the stereotype (Monteith et al. 1997)
race/gender/sexual orientation vs. skinheads
motivation (Plant & Devine, 1997)
practice (Wegner, 1994)
41. Things Worth Knowing Wegner’s (1994) model of mental control.
The nature of post-suppression rebound effects.