Briefing on genetically modified organisms
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 21

BRIEFING ON GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 83 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

BRIEFING ON GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS. Acting director general: mr peter thabete Department of agriculture, fisheries and forestry. OUTLINE OF BRIEFING. 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON BIOTECHNOLOGY/ GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOs)

Download Presentation

BRIEFING ON GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Briefing on genetically modified organisms

BRIEFING ON GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

Acting director general: mr peter thabete

Department of agriculture, fisheries and forestry


Outline of briefing

OUTLINE OF BRIEFING

1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON BIOTECHNOLOGY/ GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOs)

2. LEGISLATION: GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS ACT, 1997 (ACT NO. 15 OF 1997) AND AMENDMENTS

3. STATUS OF GM CROP ADOPTION IN SOUTH AFRICA

4. STATUS REGARDING TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENT OF GMOS


1 biotechnology gmos

1... BIOTECHNOLOGY/ GMOs

Defining Biotechnology

A “toolbox” of various techniques that uses living organisms or derivatives thereof to modify or make useful products. In the past this has included selective breeding for improvement of plants and animals and the fermentation of commodities such as bread, beer, wine, cheese etc

Defining Modern Biotechnology

Discovery of genetic code or “DNA” biotechnology applications were able to facilitate the transfer of genetic material within and beyond the species boundaries thus allowing living organisms to be modified or altered at a genetic level, resulting in what is known as a genetically modified organism (GMO).

Collectively this process is termed genetic engineering/ modification and represents but one of the many tools in the biotechnology “toolbox”.


1 biotechnology policy context

1…BIOTECHNOLOGY POLICY CONTEXT

National Biotechnology Strategy (2001)

Promotes the establishment of a thriving biotechnology sector

through various interventions because of potential to contribute to economic development.

Biotechnology Opportunities

increase agricultural production in a sustainable manner

address production challenges relating to limited arable land and the declining natural resource base.

Nutritionally enhanced food

CAUTION!

GM technology not solution to every problem but instead should be considered in combination with other sustainable technologies and existing agricultural practices


2 legislation genetically modified organisms act 1997 act no 15 of 1997 and amendments

2. LEGISLATION: GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS ACT, 1997 (ACT NO. 15 OF 1997) AND AMENDMENTS


2 gmos sa regulatory landscape

2…GMOS: SA REGULATORY LANDSCAPE

Department of Agriculture,

Forestry & Fisheries

Department of Science & Technology

Department of Environmental Affairs

Department of Trade and Industry

Department

of Health

National

Biotechnology

Strategy

2001

GMO Act, 1997

(Amendment in

2006)

National

Environmental

Management Act, 1998

Foodstuffs,

Cosmetics, and

Disinfectants

Act, 1972

Consumer

Protection

Act, 2008

Cartagena

Protocol for

Biosafety-2003

*Competent

Authority

National

Environmental

Biodiversity

Act, 2004

CODEX

Alimentarius

Contact Point

Convention on

Biological Diversity/

Cartagena Protocol

*Focal Point


2 gmo act 1997

2...GMO ACT, 1997

  • Implemented in 1999 - Ensure activities relating to GMOs are carried out RESPONSIBLY

     Limit adverse impact on environment, human/animal health

    How is this achieved?

  • Administrative & consultative system

  • Manage import, export, production, release & distribution

  • Lay down criteria for risk assessment & risk management

  • Ensure effective management of waste

  • Prevent accidents


2 gmo act regulatory instrument

2...GMO ACT: REGULATORY INSTRUMENT

Act makes provision for the Minister to appoint members to regulatory bodies which exercise oversight over the safety assessment and approval of GMO applications.

Registrar

(Administration)

  • Environmental Safety

  • Food & feed safety

  • Non safety issues e.g.

  • trade &

  • socio-economics

Advisory Committee

Technical experts responsible for safety assessment

Executive Council

Decision makers represented by DAFF, DEA, DoH, the dti, DoL, DST & AC Chair


2 international obligations cartagena protocol on biosafety

2...International Obligations: Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety is an international agreement established under the Convention on Biological Diversity

Objective: contribute to ensuring an adequate level of protection for the safe transfer, handling and use of GMOs to limit adverse effects on conservation and biodiversity, also taking into account risks to human health.

SA acceded to the Protocol in 2003

Obligations as a Contracting Party to provide legal, administrative and other measures to implement provisions of Protocol

DAFF is the recognized Competent Authority and DEA is the Focal Point


2 gmo amendment act act 23 of 2006

2...GMO Amendment Act (Act 23 of 2006)

  • Process of amending the Act was initiated in 2003 after SA’s accession to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

  • Amendments focused on alignment with provisions of Protocol and related environmental legislation

  • GMO Amendment Bill subjected to parliamentary processes and was approved by President in April 2007.

  • In 2008 regulations were drafted and gazetted for public input.

  • Following review and consultation of comments, regulations were finalized and submitted for approval in 2009.

  • In February 2010 Amendment Act was proclaimed and the regulations gazetted for implementation.


2 gmo amendment act act 23 of 20061

2...GMO Amendment Act (Act 23 of 2006)

Status of implementing key amendments to the Act:

  • Procedures already in place to address transboundary movement of GMOs in compliance with Protocol

  • Protocol provisions for risk assessment and risk management already implemented

  • Consultation with related government departments on environmental and socioeconomic impact assessments is ongoing

  • Development of official biosafety clearing house is near completion

  • Administrative processes initiated to facilitate inclusion of representation on EC from Arts and Culture, Water Affairs and Forestry


3 status of gm crop adoption in south africa

3. STATUS OF GM CROP ADOPTION IN SOUTH AFRICA


3 status of gm crop adoption in sa

3. STATUS OF GM CROP ADOPTION IN SA

SA AREA PLANTED WITH GM CROPS

Total Maize = 78% of total maize ha

White maize: hectares, 64% crop

Yellow maize: hectares, % crop

Soybean: 85% crop

Cotton: 92-95% crop

Total Area : 2,1 million hectares

(ISAAA, 2009)

GM Crops – Commercially Approved


Briefing on genetically modified organisms

(Source: ISAAA 2009)


Briefing on genetically modified organisms

3....IMPACT OF GM CROPS

Economic benefits

Less crop damage due to effective

insect control

Improved yields

Reduced chemical use

Savings on input costs

Increased farm income

Potential benefits for both small scale

and commercial producers

Cumulative benefits from 1999-2009

estimated at $500 mill for SA (ISAAA, 2009)

BT Maize:

BT Cotton:

Source: Gouse et al (2003, 2004, 2005)


4 status regarding transboundary movement of gmos

4. STATUS REGARDING TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENT OF GMOS


4 status regarding transboundary movement of gmos1

4. STATUS REGARDING TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENT OF GMOS

Imports/ Exports procedures applicable to:

GM seed for intentional introduction into the environment i.e. For planting

GM Commodity for direct use as food, feed or processing (not planting)

Procedures strictly comply with Protocol requirements (Articles 7,8,11 & 18)

Generally follows a process involving-

Notification of GM events in the consignment

Decision making based on available risk assessment data of GM events

Communication of decision and issuance of relevant authorisation documents if appropriate.

Challenges where contracting Parties to the Protocol are at different levels of implementation and do not yet have all the required procedures in place.


4 status of gm commodity imports

4. ...STATUS OF GM COMMODITY IMPORTS

In 2005, Executive Council (EC) suspended all existing and new applications for commodity imports of GM maize.

Decision based on the dti’s concerns regarding the possible negative impact of GM commodity trading on local producers.

To facilitate decision making a study was commissioned by the EC to investigate the issues raised by the dti.

Outcomes of the study broadly confirmed that restricting access to new GM maize events would disadvantage both domestic producers and consumers of GM maize.


4 status of gm commodity imports cont

4. ..STATUS OF GM COMMODITY IMPORTS (cont.)

Following an analysis of the study report the dti recommended to the EC that:

Imports of GM maize commodity be allowed only if DAFF is able to ensure adequate control measures for policing and monitoring of commodity imports.

Import of GM sugarcane not be allowed unless verification is possible through scientific testing.

Consultation with SACU member states on the development of regulatory measures for GM commodities due to potential risks of transboundary movement of GM products to SACU countries.

In response to the dti’s recommendations the EC has commissioned several interventions to address strengthening of regulatory control measures.

Since EC decisions are consensus based, the Council is currently awaiting the final position by the dti on whether they are satisfied that their concerns have been addressed.


4 gm commodity exports

4. ..GM COMMODITY EXPORTS

Same consideration given to SA for commodity imports needs to be extended to importing Parties when SA is the exporting country.

GM maize exports to Kenya:

Both Kenya and SA are Parties to the Protocol

GM status of maize consignment was declared to Kenya

Import authorisation was issued by Kenya accepting the consignment

Export permit issued by SA for mixed consignment of GM maize to Kenya for use as a commodity (i.e. not for planting)

Follow ups with Kenyan government regarding status of maize consignment resulted in response from KEPHIS that shipment of maize was transferred to a warehouse.

No official communication received since media reports.


Concluding remarks

CONCLUDING REMARKS

To date SA has made significant progress with the alignment and implementation of its Biosafety Regulatory Framework

Because the regulatory framework in SA cannot function within a vacuum we have to take cognizance of Agreements and Protocols that apply at an International level in the interest of ensuring our trade credibility for accessing international markets.

We do acknowledge the challenges relating to GMOs in so far as different countries expressing different viewpoints on the subject and being at different levels of regulatory implementation.

Continue to engage our regulatory counterparts on technical issues relating to GMOs in an attempt to address some of the identified challenges.


  • Login