National cereal crop residue project
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National Cereal Crop Residue Project. Russ Karow, Head Oregon State University Dept of Crop & Soil Science. Project Goal. to explore possibilities for use of small grain straws as a biomass source for biofuels production to consider such use in a sustainable cropping system context

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National Cereal Crop Residue Project

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National cereal crop residue project

National Cereal CropResidue Project

Russ Karow, Head

Oregon State University

Dept of Crop & Soil Science


Project goal

Project Goal

  • to explore possibilities for use of small grain straws as a biomass source for biofuels production

  • to consider such use in a sustainable cropping system context

    Group was given planning grants


Group activities

Group Activities

  • organized a symposium at the 2009 ASA meeting on stover removal findings from long-term plots

  • mapped 1999-2008 National Ag Statistics Service yield data for wheat, barley, oat, grain sorghum and rice

  • conducted wheat harvest index studies across major grain growing areas in 2008 and 2009


Asa symposium

ASA Symposium

Residue Removal and Soil Quality –

Findings from Long-Term Research Plots

  • Hero Gollany - CQESTR

  • David Tarkalson – Irrigated Grain Residue Removal

  • Stephen Machado – Pendleton long term (OR - 1930)

  • Emerson Nafziger - Morrow Plots (IL - 1876)

  • Randy Miles - Sanborn Field (MO -1888)

  • David Powlson - Rothamsted Plots (England - 1843)

  • Gary Varvel – Current Corn Residue Removal Studies

    2009 ASA symposium will be publishedas special series in Agronomy Journal


Train of thought in mapping

Train of Thought in Mapping

  • dryland grain yield is driven by rainfall

  • rainfall can vary dramatically over years

  • US has vast grain acreages but generally low yield

  • if straw is left in place for soil quality maintenance, then there are likely few places where straw can be harvested annually

  • identify the places where consistent straw harvest seems possible and focus research efforts in these areas


Mapping gis team

Mapping-GIS Team

Mike HalbleibChris Daly

Oregon State University PRISM Group


Dryland grain yield is driven by rainfall

Dryland grain yield is driven by rainfall

  • Yield = (inches available water – 4 for vegetation) x 6.5 bu/in

  • rainfall ≠ available water due to evaporation

    High rainfall and irrigated production is limited by other factors


Us wheat yields

US Wheat Yields


Harvest index

Harvest Index

  • tool to convert grain yield to straw yield

  • historic “rule of thumb” has been 38% which equates 100 pounds of straw for every bushel (60 pounds) of grain

  • HI = grain/(grain + straw)

    • 0.38 = 60/(100 + 60)


Us wheat yields straw hi 38

US Wheat Yields & Straw HI 38


Hi studies

HI Studies

  • Partnered with researchers already conducting grain variety trials and had them collect straw samples for HI determination and submission to INL for composition analysis

  • HI determination procedures varied by site hence some observed variation may be due to sampling per se


Cereal group field cooperators

Cereal Group Field Cooperators

  • Brent Bean – Texas A&M

  • Bradford Brown – Univ Idaho

  • Bill Bruening – Univ Kentucky

  • Jeff Edwards – Oklahoma State

  • Mike Flowers – Oregon State

  • Dewey Lee – Univ Georgia

  • Michael J. Ottman – Arizona State

  • Joel Ransom – North Dakota State

  • Jochum J. Wiersma – Univ of Minnesota


2008 2009 hi studies

2008 & 2009 HI Studies


2008 2009 hi studies1

2008 & 2009 HI Studies


Hi studies1

HI Studies

0.44 = 60 lb grain/(60 grain +76 straw)


Us wheat yields straw hi 38 44

US Wheat Yields & Straw HI 38/44


Straw needed for soil quality

Straw needed for soil quality

  • values vary depending on location – soil type, soil slope, rainfall

  • 3000 -4500 lb/a seem reasonable values

  • for effective harvest you may need an additional 3000 lb/a

  • 6000 lb (3t)/a minimum??


Summary

Summary

  • despite vast acreages of grains, given year-to-year variation in yield and harvested acres, there may be few areas where straw can be sustainably harvested as the sole source for a biomass conversion facility

  • possible sites depend on amount of straw left for soil quality maintenance and volume of straw required for a specific plant

  • may be possible in some areas to do intermittent harvest of some fields


Summary1

Summary

  • do detailed assessments of crops and other biomass in an area - straw likely to be one of several feed stocks for a plant

  • issue in areas where straw is available for harvest may be competing uses – what will be the cost of drawing straw into biofuels use


Plans for 2010

Plans for 2010

  • 2009 ASA symposium will be published as special series in Agronomy Journal

  • HI data will be submitted as AJ note

  • Compiled NASS raw data will be posted to an accessible web site for general use

  • Maps showing grain yields and predicted straw yields will be posted to an accessible web site for general use

  • Explore ideas for other needed work


National cereal crop residue project

Map Website

http://gisdev.nacse.org/prism/sun_grant/


National cereal crop residue project

Common beardless

Common awned

Club awnless


2008 hi values

2008 HI Values


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