Chapter 22 the protists
1 / 51

Chapter 22 - The Protists - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Chapter 22 - The Protists. Domain Eukarya Kindom Protista. Endosymbiotic hypothesis. Nucleated cell takes in aerobic bacteria. Endosymbiotic hypothesis. Nucleated cell w/ mitochondria takes in cyanobacteria. Kingdom Protista – Survey of Life.

Related searches for Chapter 22 - The Protists

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 22 - The Protists' - lyn

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 22 the protists l.jpg

Chapter 22 - The Protists

Domain Eukarya

Kindom Protista

Endosymbiotic hypothesis l.jpg
Endosymbiotic hypothesis

  • Nucleated cell takes in aerobic bacteria

Endosymbiotic hypothesis3 l.jpg
Endosymbiotic hypothesis

  • Nucleated cell w/ mitochondria takes in cyanobacteria

Kingdom protista survey of life l.jpg
Kingdom Protista – Survey of Life

  • Like the Monera, the Protista are extremely important to life on earth.

  • The protists play important roles in food webs throughout the world, while the algae also contribute significantly to photosynthesis.

  • This kingdom contains the most diverse assemblage of organisms of any of the five major kingdoms.

Protista continued l.jpg
Protista continued

  • Greater than 60,000 known protists - vary extensively in cellular anatomy, general morphology, and physiology.

  • Nearly all aerobic in metabolism, reproduce by both sexual and asexual means, may be heterotrophic or autotrophic, and most have flagella or cilia at some stage of their life cycle.

  • Most constituents of zooplankton and phytoplankton would belong to this kingdom.

Kingdom protista l.jpg
Kingdom Protista

  • Contains three major sub-divisions:

    1. ingestive, animal-like protists - protozoa

    2. photosynthetic, plant-like protists - algae

    3. absorptive, fungus like protists - slime and water molds

Protozoa subdivided based on locomotion or feeding strategy l.jpg
Protozoa - subdivided based on locomotion or feeding strategy

  • Phylum Rhizopoda –

  • amoebas and relatives; unicellular;

  • freshwater and marine species;

  • "amoeboid movement" by pseudopodia;

    • phagocytize algae, bacteria, other protists

  • free-living and parasitic forms;

  • reproduce by asexual means;

  • Examples include Amoeba proteus, and Entamoeba histolytica which causes amoebic dysentery in humans

Protozoa contd l.jpg
Protozoa, contd.

  • Phylum Foraminifera - the foraminiferans

  • Unicellular with pseudopods

  • Calcium carbonate skeleton (test)

  • Test deposits in deep sea; also White Cliffs of Dover

  • Phylum Actinopoda - the radiolarians

  • Unicellular with pseudopods

  • Silicon test, normally radial symmetry

Forams l.jpg

Calcarini spengleri

Protozoa contd13 l.jpg
Protozoa, contd.

  • Phylum Apicomplexa (Sporozoans) - parasitic protozoa which enter host by means of structure near apex of organism; disseminate as infectious cells called sporozoites; complex, multi-staged life cycles with sexual and asexual stages often involving several hosts; Examples include Plasmodium which causes malaria (female Anopheles mosquito serves as vector); sporozoites (2N) injected into human host; merozoites invade host red blood cells

Protozoa l.jpg

  • Phylum Zoomastigophora (Zooflagellates) - use flagella for locomotion; free-living, parasitic, and symbiotic forms; Examples include Trypanosoma, which requires the tsetse fly as a vector and a cow as intermediate host, causes African Sleeping Sickness; and Trichonympha which lives in the gut of termites and metabolizes cellulose

Protozoa contd16 l.jpg
Protozoa- contd.

  • Phylum Ciliophora (Ciliates) –

  • locomotion by cilia; most are freshwater, unicellular forms;

  • Examples include Paramecium which utilizes cilia for locomotion and Stentor which utilizes cilia for collecting food; among the most complex of all cells;

  • Important structures associated with Paramecium include a macronucleus which controls normal metabolic functions of the cell; a micronucleus which functions in sexual reproduction by conjugation;

  • and a contractile vacuole which functions in osmoregulation

Ciliate paramecium l.jpg
Ciliate - Paramecium

The algae l.jpg
The Algae

  • primarily photosynthetic, unicellular or multicellular, plant-like protists;

  • all algae possess Chlorophyll a (the same in cyanobacteria and higher plants) but also possess a variety of accessory pigments including:

    1. carotenoids (yellow-orange)

    2. xanthophylls (yellow-brown)

    3. phycobilins (red and blue)

    4. chlorophylls b, c, and d

Classifying the algae l.jpg
Classifying The Algae

Major considerations include:


Accessory pigments

Type of starch used as a carbohydrate reserve

Phylum pyrrophyta dinoflagellata l.jpg
Phylum Pyrrophyta (Dinoflagellata)

  • (dinoflagellates) 1100 species;

  • chlorophyll a, c, carotenoids, xanthophylls;

  • store starch;

  • abundant constituents of phytoplankton which often cause "blooms"; explosive growth

  • unicellular with two flagella located within perpendicular grooves;

  • cell wall of cellulose w/ silicates;

  • freshwater and marine; important producers

  • Examples include Gonyaulax which causes "red tides"

Ceratium an armored dinoflagellate l.jpg
Ceratium, an armored dinoflagellate

Phylum chrysophyta l.jpg
Phylum Chrysophyta

  • (golden algae) 850 species;

  • chlorophyll a,c, carotenoids, and xanthophylls;

  • Laminarin starch; cell wall of pectin and silicon;

  • typically biflagellated; freshwater plankton

Phylum bacillariophyta l.jpg
Phylum Bacillariophyta

  • (diatoms) 10,000 species;

  • chlorophyll a, c, carotenoids, xanthophylls; Leucosin starch;

  • two part shell made of silica ("diatomaceous earth"); on ocean floor

  • freshwater and marine forms- significant component phytoplankton

Phylum euglenophyta l.jpg
Phylum Euglenophyta

  • (Euglena) 800 species;

  • chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, xanthophylls;

  • Paramylon starch;

  • one to three apical flagella;

  • freshwater; Euglena can function as a heterotroph or autotroph;

  • Important structures include eyespot (stigma), chloroplasts, and gullet

Euglena l.jpg

Euglena gracilis

Phylum chlorophyta l.jpg
Phylum Chlorophyta

  • (green algae) 7,000 species;

  • chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids;

  • plant starch;

  • Unicellular, filamentous, multicellular with some being seaweeds (e.g. Ulvalactuca)

  • majority are unicellular with two or more apical flagella;

  • cell wall of cellulose;

Phylum chlorophyta continued l.jpg
Phylum Chlorophyta continued

  • mostly freshwater; some marine

  • ancestral to green plants;

  • exhibit "alternation of generations" characterized by gametophyte and sporophyte generations;

  • Examples include Spirogyra, Ulva, Chlamydomonas, Volvox

Chlamydomonas unicelular green l.jpg
Chlamydomonas, unicelular green

Spirogyra filamentous green l.jpg
Spirogyra, filamentous green

Volvox a colonial green l.jpg
Volvox, a colonial green

Acetabularia mermaids wine glass l.jpg
Acetabularia, “mermaids wine glass”

Phylum chlorophyta continued38 l.jpg
Phylum Chlorophyta continued

  • Ulva would also be commonly called "seaweed' along with members of the Phylum Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta; important structures include thallus (body), holdfast, stipe (stem), and blade (leaflike structure);

  • seaweeds lack vascular tissue and, therefore, do not possess true roots, stems, or leaves

Ulva would also be commonly called

Ulva sea lettuce l.jpg
Ulva, sea lettuce

Phylum phaeophyta l.jpg
Phylum Phaeophyta

  • (brown algae) 1,500 species;

  • chlorophyll a, c, carotenoids, and xanthophylls;

  • Laminarin starch; cell wall of cellulose;

  • mostly marine;

  • Examples include kelps; brown algae are useful commercial as thickeners, cosmetic bases, and as fertilizer and animal feed; high in iodine

Phaeophyta l.jpg

Laminaria digitata

Fucus sp.

Phylum rhodophyta l.jpg
Phylum Rhodophyta

  • (red algae) 4,000 species;

  • chlorophyll a, d, carotenoids, phycobilins;

  • Floridean starch; cell wall of cellulose;

  • mostly marine;

  • source of agar; some edible Phorphyra

Rhodophyta red algae l.jpg
Rhodophyta – red algae

Botryoglossum farlowianum

Rhodymenia sp.

Rhodophyta red algae45 l.jpg
Rhodophyta – red algae

Jania longifurca

Chondrus crispus

The slime and water molds fungus like protists l.jpg
The Slime and Water Molds:Fungus-like Protists

  • Myxomycota - plasmodial slime molds; life cycle consists of coenocytic (multinucleate) feeding plasmodium alternating with haploid amoeboid cells

    Feeding by phagocytosis – ingest excellular particles by engulfing them- forest decomposition, also feed on bacteria

    Plasmodium – muticellular cytoplasmic mass having a slime sheath that creeps along

The slime and water molds fungus like protists49 l.jpg
The Slime and Water Molds:Fungus-like Protists

  • Acrasiomycota - cellular slime molds; feeding stage is unicellular amoeboid type cells and haploid; no coenocytic stage and only zygote is diploid

    Feed on bacteria and yeasts

The slime and water molds fungus like protists50 l.jpg
The Slime and Water Molds:Fungus-like Protists

  • Oomycota – filamentous water molds, white rusts, and downy mildews; Examples include mildew that causes "late blight" of potato famine fame; and the downy mildew that caused root rot in the French vineyards in the 1870's

  • Usually in water where they parasitize fish and insects

  • Most saprophytic feeding – heterotrophic by absorption of nutrients back across plasma membrane