Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 137

Why So Many Are Not Succeeding? Are We Missing the Learning Disability? PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 35 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Why So Many Are Not Succeeding? Are We Missing the Learning Disability?. Glenn Young Learning Disabilities Consultant [email protected] glennyoungcsld.com. Success of Employment and Training Programs in the US.

Download Presentation

Why So Many Are Not Succeeding? Are We Missing the Learning Disability?

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

Why So Many Are Not Succeeding?Are We Missing the Learning Disability?

Glenn Young

Learning Disabilities Consultant

[email protected]

glennyoungcsld.com


Success of employment and training programs in the us

Success of Employment and Training Programs in the US

Approximately 8 million persons a year obtain Employment and Training Services from USDOL programs

  • About 72% of adults are successful in employment training programs

  • About 65% of youths are successful in employment and training programs


Profile of the population

Profile of the Population

  • Sixty percent of the 110 million workers in the United States lack any kind of postsecondary credential.

    • Almost one-third of American workers (31 percent) have only a high school diploma;

    • And 30 percent of high school students nationally who enter postsecondary education need some kind of remediation.

      http://www.lsc.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/ezmkbodmv6gybapf3kvyif6dwpuxmu2vcn2pwjl3rso6cxj3z32aiug5cptnjvdgnscmgqz5smou3m/3088UpdateNewsletter3v212b.pdf


Without education

Without Education …..

  • More than nine million working Americans—25 percent of whom work full time, year round—earn less than the official poverty level, and

  • More than 40 million Americans earn below 200 percent of the poverty level, a widely accepted proxy for a minimum family sustainable.

  • The longer one stays in a low-wage, low-skill job, the farther one falls behind other workers in whose skills and futures employers are more eager to invest (Andersson, Holzer, and Lane 2003).

  • http://www.jff.org/jff/PDFDocuments/nextchallenge.pdf


Workforce issues

Workforce Issues

Nearly all employers rejected at least some job applicants. Yet when these employers were asked the reasons behind most of the rejected production job applications,

  • Nearly one-third reported rejecting applications due to a lack of adequate reading and writing ability

  • One-fifth reported rejecting applicants with inadequate math skills.

  • Less than 8 percent of manufacturing employers, however, cited the lack of a degree or of vocational training as a reason for rejecting applicants.

  • http://www.heritage.org/Research/Labor/bg1774.cfm


  • Why a lack in basic skills

    Why a lack in Basic Skills?

    • There are too many potential reason to list why the skill level of students transitioning into employment are not adequate

    • However, one that is consistently missed is the issue of Learning Disabilities


    Vocational rehabilitation services administration definition

    Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration - Definition

    VR defines LD as:

    • A specific learning disability is a disorder in one or more of the central nervous system processes involved in

      • perceiving, understanding, and/or using concepts through

      • verbal (spoken or written) language or non- verbal means.


    Vocational rehabilitation services administration definition1

    Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administration - Definition

    VR defines LD as:

    • This disorder manifests itself with a deficit in one or more of the following areas:

      • attention, - reasoning,

      • processing, - memory,

      • communication, - reading,

      • writing, - spelling,

      • calculation, - coordination,

      • social competence, and

      • emotional maturity.


    Part of the problem traditional paradigm of adults with ld

    Part of the Problem - Traditional Paradigm of Adults with LD

    Hoffmann et al. (1987) describes the “typical learning disabled adult” subject in his studies as:

    • an unemployed, unmarried 23-year old white male

    • who had graduated from high school


    Traditional paradigm of adults with ld cont

    Traditional Paradigm of Adults with LD (cont.)

    Hoffmann et al. (1987) describes the “typical learning disabled adult” subject in his studies as:

    • who had received some form of specialized education

    • who had previously been labeled learning disabled, and

    • who was being supported by his parents


    Estimated rates of adults with ld documentation

    Estimated Rates of Adults with LD Documentation

    • While schools are identifying about 5% with LD,

    • While the estimates run as high as 15-20% of adults with LD

    • While adult education and literacy programs have estimated ranges of 30-70% LD.

    • IT IS ESTMIATED THAT LESS THAN 1% OF ADULTS AND OUT OF SCHOOL YOUTH, WITH LD, HAVE PROPER DOCUMENTATION.


    Estimated rates of adults and out of school youth with ld documentation

    Estimated Rates of Adults and Out of School Youth with LD Documentation

    • Who are these 99% of adults and Out of School Youth who have LD who do not have documentation?

      • Disproportional rates of women

      • Minority language populations

      • Low-literate adults (disproportional people of color)

    • Where do we find them?

      • Job training programs

      • Literacy/LEP programs

      • Prisons

      • Not in standard disability programs.


    Estimated rates of adults with ld documentation1

    Estimated Rates of Adults with LD Documentation

    These “99% of those with LD” can not fit the standard disability process.

    • Under current law, persons with disabilities are responsible for self identifying and asking for accommodations.

      • Adult with LD either do not know they have a disability, or

      • No longer have current documentation (was documented in school)


    Sub groups of youth with ld

    Sub-Groups of Youth with LD

    1) Have had a long-term identification with LD and have had a “positive experience” within the K-12 system and who can:

    • Who can advocate for themselves (explain the disability, etc),

    • Who understand their civil rights within the K-12 and in other settings

    • Who have the resources to provide assistive technology and other accommodations in all needed settings

    • Have needed documentation to prove the disability (or resources to get new documentation

    • Finished high school

      2) Same as type (1), but exit without the documentation


    Sub groups of youth with ld1

    Sub-Groups of Youth with LD

    3) Have a long-term identification with LD, but had a ‘negative experience” in Special Ed, and chooses not to try and continue “status of having a disability” after graduation from school.

    • Most likely does not have documentation to maintain disability status, but it is not relevant, since they choose not to maintain the status. Looses status upon graduation.

      4) Same as 3 but does not graduate. Looses status of a person with a disability upon exiting school.


    Sub groups of youth with ld2

    Sub-Groups of Youth with LD

    5) Those with LD who have

    • never been identified in K-12,

    • never received services and

    • Have virtually no understanding of disability rights or potential benefits, such as;

      • accommodations and assistive technology,

        And have been recently identified in some transition program (adult education, welfare, SCC, etc.)

    • Most of these transition programs lack the ability to conduct full scale diagnostics so the person can not truly be identified as a person with a disability due to lack of resources, but only “flagged as a person at risk.”

      • TANF is the one exception to this, and in many states has been working to identify welfare recipients. Currently, the Congress’ General Accounting Office (GAO) has issued three separate reports stating that the best estimates available are that 45% of remaining welfare recipients have an undiagnosed LD.


    Sub groups of youth with ld3

    Sub-Groups of Youth with LD

    6) Same as 5, but have not being identified within their “transition” systems and therefore,

    • remains as part of the “failing” populations, whose lack of success is being attributed to numerous issues, but not including to a potential issues of LD, or other disabilities.


    Percentage within sub groups of youth with ld

    Percentage Within Sub Groups of Youth with LD

    The percentages for each of the six sub-categories based on best estimates, if we look at the overall LD population, (both those identified and those not identified) the are:

    • Categories 1 and 2 – (identified and successful)

      Apx. 5%, perhaps as

      high as 10%

    • Categories 3 and 4 – (identified and unsuccessful)

      Apx. 25- 30%

    • Categories 5 and 6 - (out of school, previously and continuingly, not identified)

      Apx. 65%


    New paradigm on make up of adults with ld

    New Paradigm on Make-up of Adults with LD.

    UNLIKE - Hoffmann et al. (1987) “typical learning disabled adult” we now see that adults with LD can be:

    • any age - and struggling with work, or education

    • of any color or race, with a greater chance for minorities based on poverty.

    • who HAS NOT graduated from high school


    New paradigm on make up of adults with ld cont

    New Paradigm on Make-up of Adults with LD. (cont.)

    UNLIKE - Hoffmann et al. (1987) “typical learning disabled adult” we now see that adults with LD can be:

    • who HAS NOT received some form of specialized education

    • who HAS NOT previously been labeled learning disabled, and

    • who was on TANF, in job training programs of all kinds, at work, in college - etc.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    THE THREE USES OF THE TERM

    LD

    LD - Learning Differences

    LD - Learning Difficulties

    LD - Learning Disabilities


    Changing view of disabilities and workplace current view of workforce clients

    Changing View of Disabilities and Workplace Current View Of Workforce Clients


    Changing view of disabilities and workplace what research is showing

    Changing View of Disabilities and WorkplaceWhat Research Is Showing

    Target Populations of Workforce Boards


    Changing view of disabilities and workplace lep and ld what the research is showing

    Changing View of Disabilities and Workplace – LEP and LD – What the Research is Showing

    What is the real percentage of overlap?

    Undiagnosed LD/LEP Population

    Learning Disabilities

    Limited English Proficiency (LEP)

    Research showing that perhaps as high as 25%


    Changing view of disabilities and workplace traditional factors for work failure

    Employment failure

    Domestic violence

    Low literacy skills

    Mental health and depression

    Transportation

    Child care

    Poor work ethic

    Limited problem solving skills

    Lack of social skills

    AD/HD

    Learning disabilities

    Other disabilities

    Changing View of Disabilities and Workplace Traditional Factors for Work Failure


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    The LD affects employment…

    The LD affects the family…

    The LD affects literacy skills…

    The LD affects mental health and depression…

    The LD affects transportation…

    The LD affects child care…

    The LD affects workplace skills…

    The LD affects problem solving skills…

    The LD affects social skills…

    The LD affects AD/HD…

    The adult with LD

    has protections under the ADA.

    The LD affects other disabilities…

    Changing View of Disabilities and Workplace New Paradigm of Learning Disabilities Needed to Bring About Work Success


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Department of Health and Human Services - Office of Inspector GeneralFunctional Impairments of AFDC Clients (1992)

    Recommendations:

    1. States should develop mechanisms to assure appropriate identification, referral, and follow-up of clients with functional impairment. These mechanisms could include:

    • in-depth assessments with questions and features specifically targeted to functional impairments

    • training AFDC and JOBS workers to identify functional impairments, and

    • improved links with local programs with serve the functional impaired, particularly with regard to follow-up.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Department of Health and Human Services - Office of Inspector GeneralFunctional Impairments of AFDC Clients (1992)

    Recommendations:

    2 The Administration for Children and Families should assist States and Local governments by publicizing effective practices for identifying, referring, and serving the functionally impaired.

    3 The Administration for Children and Families should conduct research on the extent and nature of impairments and interventions


    Critical factors for success of persons with disabilities

    Critical Factors for Success of Persons with Disabilities

    • Self Awareness - understanding of having a disability.

    • Understanding of laws and protections under the laws and,

    • Accessing assistive technology and other accommodations.

      • Office of Disability and Employment Policy (ODEP) http://www.dol.gov/odep/


    Critical factors for success of persons with disabilities1

    Critical Factors for Success of Persons with Disabilities

    • Most adults and older teens with Learning Disabilities are not self awareness - do not have an understanding that they have a disability.

    • Most adults and older teens with LD do not understand disability laws and protections offered under these laws, and

    • Most adults and older teens with LD are not able to access assistive technology and other accommodations.


    The operative word in learning disabilities is disabilities

    The Operative Word in “Learning Disabilities is “Disabilities”

    • In order to understand Learning Disabilities we need to first understand disabilities


    Federal civil rights laws for disability issues

    FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS LAWS FOR DISABILITY ISSUES

    • THE REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973/SECTION 504

    • INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (IDEA 1990/97) (FORMERLY- PUBLIC LAW 94-142

    • THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT OF 1990

    • WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT OF 1998/SEC.188


    Federal definition of disability for purpose of civil rights

    Federal Definition of Disability for purpose of Civil Rights

    • A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual

    • A record of such an impairment

    • Being regarded as having such and impairment.

      ADA Regulations 1630.2 - Definition


    Federal definition of physical or mental impairment

    Federal Definition of Physical or Mental Impairment

    • Any physiological disorder, or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: neurological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory, cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, genito-urinary, memic and lymphatic, skin and endocrine, or

      • ADA Regulations 1630.2, Definition


    Federal definition of physical or mental impairment1

    Federal Definition of Physical or Mental Impairment

    • Any mental or psychological disorder, such as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness and specific learning disabilities

      ADA Regulations 1630.2, Definition


    Federal definition of major life activity

    Federal Definition of Major Life Activity

    Functions such as:

    caring for oneself

    performing manual tasks

    walking seeing

    hearing speaking

    breathing learning

    working ADA REGS 1630.2 DEFINITIONS


    Federal definition of substantially limits ada regs 1630 2 definitions

    Federal Definition of “Substantially Limits: ADA Regs. 1630.2 Definitions

    1) Unable to perform a major life activity that the average person in the general population can perform, or:

    2) Significantly restricted as to the condition manner or duration under which an individual can perform a particular major live activities as compared to the conditions manner or duration under which the average person in the general population can perform that same major life activity


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    WITH RESPECT TO THE MAJOR LIFE ACTIVITY OF "WORKING" THE FEDERAL DEFINITION OF SUBSTANTIALLY LIMITS IS

    • Significantly restricted in the ability to perform either a class of jobs or a broad range of jobs in various classes as compared to the average person having comparable training skills and abilities.

    • The inability to perform a single particular job does not constitute a substantial limitation in the major life activity of working.

      • AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT REGULATIONS 1630.2 DEFINITION


    Reasonable accommodations

    Reasonable Accommodations

    • In Federal law "reasonable accommodations," is defined as meaning: modifications or adjustments . . . that enable a qualified individual with disability to perform the essential functions (of the job or activity).{ADA regulation. Section 1630.2(o)}

    • A qualified individual meansan individual with a disability who . . . with or without reasonable accommodations, can perform the essential functions (of the activity).{ADA regulation Section 1630.2(m)


    Title ii of the ada

    Title II of the ADA

    …(2) The term qualified individual with a disability means an individual with a disability who,

    • with or without reasonable modifications to rules, policies, or practices, the removal of architectural, communication, or transportation barriers, or the provision of auxiliary aids and services,

    • meets the essential eligibility requirements for the receipt of services or the participation in programs or activities provided by a public entity.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    THE THREE USES OF THE TERM

    LD

    LD - Learning Differences

    LD - Learning Difficulties

    LD - Learning Disabilities


    National joint committee on learning disabilities njcld definition revised 1994

    National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) (definition revised 1994)

    • “Learning disabilities” is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities.

    • These disorders are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction, and may occur across the life span...


    National joint committee on learning disabilities njcld definition revised 19941

    National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) (Definition revised 1994)

    Although learning disabilities may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions

    • (for example: sensory impairments, mental retardation, or serious emotional disturbance) or with extrinsic influences (such as cultural differences, insufficient or inappropriate instruction),

      they are not the result of those conditions or influences.


    Disability not teaching failure

    Disability, not Teaching Failure

    • The definitions show learning disabilities to have a foundation of impairment in the central nervous system.

    • The academic (and social) failings are based on the impairment, not lack of access or opportunity


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Every Child a Learner: Reducing Risks of Learning Impairment During Pregnancy and Infancy, Newman and Buka, 1990

    • The causes of learning impairments are:

      1) low birth-weight,

      2) prenatal alcohol exposure,

      3) maternal smoking,

      4) prenatal exposure to drugs,

      5) lead poisoning,

      6) child abuse and neglect, and

      7) malnutrition.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Some Known Causes

    • Genetic Defects Birth trauma Endocrine gland dysfunction Diet

    • Lead poisoning Oxygen deprivation

    • Accidents Toxins

    • Chronic illness (ear infections, etc.)

    • Early childhood high fevers

    • Pre-natal malnutrition

    • Maternal substance abuse

    • US Dept of Labor -1991


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    New evidence points to a link between environmental poisons and learning disabilities.

    Kids at Risk!

    Chemicals in the environment come under scrutiny as the number of childhood learning problems soars!

    June 19, 2000


    Poverty and learning disabilities

    Poverty and Learning Disabilities

    • “Living in poverty increases the likelihood of children having a learning disability by 30%.”

      (Children’s Defense Fund, “Wasting America’s Future” Sherman, 1995, p79).


    Children s defense fund wasting america s future 1994

    Children’s Defense Fund, “Wasting America’s Future”1994

    • 65.4% of households with a student with SLD have an annual income of less than $25,000 (specific learning disabilities) as compared with 38.8% for the student population in general. Martha Coutinho, “Secondary Education & Beyond”, (LDA, 1995)


    Types of learning disabilities from steps to independent living by dale brown

    TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES (From “Steps to Independent Living” by Dale Brown)

    • ACADEMIC DIFFICULTIES:

      • DYSLEXIA - INABILITY OR REDUCED ABILITY TO READ

      • DYSCALCULIA - INABILITY OR REDUCED ABILITY TO DO MATH

      • DYSGRAPHIA - INABILITY OR REDUUCED ABILITY TO WRITE


    Types of learning disabilities from steps to independent living by dale brown1

    TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES (From “Steps to Independent Living” by Dale Brown

    • Auditory perceptual problems:

    • Auditory discrimination problems

      - (the difference between "th" and

      "F", "m" and "n"

    • Auditory figure-ground problem

      - (Hearing over background noise)

    • Auditory sequencing problem

      - (Hearing 49, instead of 94 or "treats” instead of "street"


    Types of learning disabilities from steps to independent living by dale brown2

    TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES (From “Steps to Independent Living” by Dale Brown

    • Catastrophic response:

      - Involuntary reaction to too many

      Sights, sounds or extreme

      emotions or other strong stimuli.

    • Directional problem:

      - Trouble telling left from right

    • Memory problem, short term:

      - trouble remembering: names, numbers, specific facts, what happened a few minutes ago.


    Types of learning disabilities from steps to independent living by dale brown3

    TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES (From “Steps to Independent Living” by Dale Brown

    • Tactile perceptual problem:

      Immature tactile system

      - problems with soft touching

      Tactile defensiveness

      - avoiding being touched

      Tactile discrimination problem

      - problems in determining differences in similar objects


    Types of learning disabilities from steps to independent living by dale brown4

    TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES (From “Steps to Independent Living” by Dale Brown

    • Visual perceptual problem

      • Visual figure-ground problem

      • trouble seeing a specific image

      • Visual sequencing problem

      • trouble seeing things in order

      • Visual discrimination problem -

        - trouble seeing the difference

        Between similar objects (v and u)


    C ontinuum of neurological disorders possible with learning disabilities from dr larry silver

    CONTINUUM OF NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS POSSIBLE WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES - From Dr. Larry Silver

    • Language disability

    • Motor disability

    • Attention deficit

      /Hyperactivity disorder

    • Chronic-motor/tic

      disorder/Tourettes

    • Obsessive compulsive disorder

    • Compulsive disorder


    Comorbid psychiatric disorders from dr larry silver

    COMORBID PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS- From Dr. Larry Silver

    Internalized:

    • Anxiety

    • Depression

      Externalized:

    • Oppositional defiant/

    • conduct disorder

    • Borderline personality

      disorder

      Substance abuse:

    • Alcohol

    • Drugs


    What is needed to diagnose ld

    What is needed to Diagnose LD

    Diagnostics for LD need to be conducted by professional psychologist or psychiatrist

    • Screening tools are not diagnostic tools

    • Screens can only identify “risk factors” for LD, not who is LD.


    What is needed to diagnose ld1

    What is needed to Diagnose LD

    Diagnostics for LD need to be conducted by professional psychologist or psychiatrist

    There are two main diagnostic approaches

    Educational Psychological (ED-PSYC)

    Neurological Psychological (NERUO-PSYC)


    What is needed to diagnose ld2

    What is needed to Diagnose LD

    Different “settings’ require different types of evaluations

    If a new diagnostic is needed, the type should be based on consumer need.

    Educational Psychological (ED-PSYC)

    K-12, Adult Education programs, Community Colleges, most Four-Year Colleges.

    Neurological Psychological (NEURO-PSYC)

    Vocational Rehabilitation, most job training programs, most employment settings.

    GED requires its own testing requirements (Form L-15) that has elements of both Ed-Psycs and Neuro-Psycs)


    What is needed to diagnose ld3

    What is needed to Diagnose LD

    The findings of the tests need to reveal

    Narrow bans of dysfunction(s)

    While showing a general capacity (intelligence)


    What is needed to diagnose ld4

    What is needed to Diagnose LD

    LD is in some ways a “mirror image” of a “savant”

    “Mental Retardation” has test results showing a general low level of capacity.

    “Savants” have broad range of dysfunction with narrow bans of great skills (“Rain Man”)

    “LD” have narrow ranges of dysfunction(s) with broad range of “average or above average” abilities.


    Ld profile wisc iii percentile ranking

    LD Profile WISC III Percentile Ranking

    Scales and Subtests 0-------25------50 ------75 ------99

    WISC- III Composite Scales

    Verbal IQ 70 ************************

    Performance IQ 58 *********************

    Full Scale IQ 66 ***********************

    Verbal Subtests

    Information 50 ****************

    Similarities 63 **********************

    Arithmetic 25 ********

    Vocabulary 75 *************************

    Comprehension 98 ***************************

    Digit Span 50 ****************


    Ld profile wisc iii percentile ranking1

    LD Profile WISC III Percentile Ranking

    Scales and Subtests 0-------25------50 ------75 ------99

    Performance Subtests

    Picture Completion 91 *********************

    Coding 16 ****

    Picture Arrangement 91 *********************

    Block Design 37 ******

    Object Assembly 25 *****

    Symbol Search 25 *****

    Mazes 75 *****************


    Ld profile wisc iii percentile ranking2

    LD Profile WISC III Percentile Ranking

    Scales and Subtests 0-------25------50 ------75 ------99

    Performance Subtests

    Picture Completion 91 ***********************

    Coding 16 *****

    Picture Arrangement 91 **********************

    Block Design 37 ************

    Object Assembly 25 ********

    Symbol Search 25 ********

    Mazes 75 *****************

    Coding and Object Assembly, Symbol Search are all areas key in learning to read and language acquisition - This profile show someone with general intelligence who will greatly struggle with learning to read or learning a new language.


    Ld profile wisc iii percentile ranking3

    LD Profile WISC III Percentile Ranking

    Scales and Subtests 0-------25------50 ------75 ------99

    Performance Subtests

    Picture Completion 91 *********************

    Coding 16 *****

    Picture Arrangement 91 *********************

    Block Design 37 ************

    Object Assembly 25 ********

    Symbol Search 25 ********

    Mazes 75 *****************

    The person with this profile is having problems with reading and language based on DISABILITY ISSUES, not for lack of effort, desire or effort.


    New research roots of no child left behind

    New Research - Roots of “No Child Left Behind”

    • In 1984 A report to Congress on Learning Disabilities basically said no one agrees on definition, demographics and impact.

    • Congress commissioned National Institute for Child and Human Development (NICHD) to conduct research to answers questions on LD


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    NICHD LD Research Network

    University of Washington LDRC

    Berninger

    Tufts Rx

    Waber

    Toronto Rx

    Lovett

    Boy’s Town

    Smith

    Beth Israel Dyslexia

    Galaburta

    Syracuse U

    Blackman

    Yale LDRC

    Shaywitz

    SUWY-Albany

    Vellutino

    Yale Dyslexia

    Shaywitz

    Jogn Hopkins LDRC

    Denckla

    Bowman Gray Dyslexia

    Wood

    UC Irvine

    U. Houston Rx

    Foorman

    Georgia State Rx

    R Morris

    Colorado LDRS

    DeFries

    U, Florida Rx

    M Morris

    Florida State Rx

    Torgesen

    Yale Methodology

    Fletcher


    Findings of nih research in the area of learning disabilities 1987 97

    FINDINGS OF NIH RESEARCH IN THE AREA OF LEARNING DISABILITIES (1987-97)

    • RATE: 17% of the population has a reading disability

    • CRITICAL DEFICIT: Specific deficits within the language system concerning processing of sound (phonemic awareness); damage in links to area of brain involved in reading process


    Findings of nih research in the area of learning disabilities 1987 971

    FINDINGS OF NIH RESEARCH IN THE AREA OF LEARNING DISABILITIES (1987-97)

    • No significant gender differential

    • Persistence of reading disabilities into adulthood

    • Early identification and intervention based on multiple approaches lessen impact of impairment


    Nih reseach suggests major service gap

    NIH RESEACH SUGGESTS MAJOR SERVICE GAP

    • NIH is finding 17%

    • Schools are identifying 5%

    • Two thirds of persons with LD have not been getting services in schools

      • They have gone through unidentified and un-served.

      • Who are they?


    Estimated rates of adults with ld documentation2

    Estimated Rates of Adults with LD Documentation

    • While schools are identifying about 5% with LD,

    • While the estimates run as high as 15-20% of adults with LD

    • While adult education and literacy programs have estimated ranges of 30-70% LD.

    • IT IS ESTMIATED THAT LESS THAN 1% OF ADULTS WITH LD HAVE PROPER DOCUMENTATION.


    Nih findings in the area of needs for all readers

    NIH FINDINGS IN THE AREA OF NEEDS FOR ALL READERS

    • All persons need “phonemic awareness - the ability to distinguish fine tones one from each other

    • All persons need to know “phonics” - the ability to relate a sound to a pictorial representation for that should (a letter or combination of letters)


    Nih findings in the area of needs for all readers1

    NIH FINDINGS IN THE AREA OF NEEDS FOR ALL READERS

    • All persons need to know the “rules of the language” - such things as the “magic E rule,” that “tion” has the sound of “shun” and the eight different letter combinations for the sound of “ur,” etc.

    • All persons need “automaticity” - the ability to rapidly use phonemic awareness, phonics and the rules of the language.


    Can no child left behind be adapted to the workforce world

    CAN NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND BE ADAPTED TO THE WORKFORCE WORLD?

    • The research supports how to intervene in reading. The reading interventions can work for adults, given time and intensity.

      • The key issue is time and the requirement for work activities.

        So what will work for adults?


    Can no child left behind be adapted to the workforce world1

    CAN NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND BE ADAPTED TO THE WORKFORCE WORLD?

    • Due to:

      The length of time required for an adult to learn to read

      The intensity of the teaching process and

      The skill levels needed from the instructor

      Standard adult literacy approaches do not offer solutions for adults with low literacy skills needing to enter the work place.


    Can no child left behind be adapted to the workforce world2

    CAN NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND BE ADAPTED TO THE WORKFORCE WORLD?

    NICHD research indicates that while all persons may be able to learn to read, there is not the time or expertise available for persons with LD to learn to read within the current adult literacy and workforce system.

    The solution is ….


    Can no child left behind be adapted to the workforce world3

    CAN NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND BE ADAPTED TO THE WORKFORCE WORLD?

    The solution for adults with LD and low literacy skills in the work force setting is to use “an adult disability” model, rather then a “child education model”

    A child model focuses on literacy instruction

    An adult model focuses on accommodations and assistive technology to compensate to deficits created by the disability issue.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    --- Accommodations and Age ---Findings of Sally Shaywitz (Lead NICHD Researcher)

    Childhood

    Adulthood

    Literacy Training

    Accommodations


    Research on what is needed for adult success

    Research on What is Needed for Adult Success

    • Rieff and Gerber Research

    • Glenn Young’s Model

    • Maryland Expert Panel Findings

    • U.S. HHS/OCR Findings

    • Seven Critical Needs (Glenn Young)


    Focus on customers needs

    Focus on Customers Needs

    • What are the immediate needs of the student or customer?

      • Get a GED?

      • Learn English?

    • What are the long-term goals?

      • Go to College

      • Get a promotion?

    • What is the student’s time-frame?


    Focus on customers needs1

    Focus on Customers Needs

    • Would knowledge that they have LD impact the student’s goals?

    • Would knowledge of the LD impact the teaching approaches? If so, how?

    • Would knowledge of having LD impact the student’s time-frame? If so, how?

    • Would knowledge of the LD open up additional resources? If so, what are these resources?


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Desire to be achieve

    Goal Orientation

    Learned creativity

    Persistence

    Social Ecology

    Goodness of Fit

    Re-framing

    Reiff and Gerber’s“Exceeding Expectation”Attributes of Highly Successful Adults with Learning Disabilities


    The 4 r s for persons with learning disabilities glenn young

    The 4 R’s for Persons with Learning Disabilities – Glenn Young

    • RECOGNITION - Until a person is recognized as a person with a disability, they are just a person failing for no apparent reason.

    • REMEDIATION- Addressing the literacy, work and social competency needs of persons with disabilities require specific approaches.

    • REHABILITATION - “Goodness of Fit” should be a cornerstone of job training.

    • REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION - workplace and educational accommodations will be needed, regardless of other interventions.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Vision for an Ideal System

    IMPROVING

    SERVICES TO

    ADULTS WITH

    LEARNING

    DISABILITIES

    An Adult Education Partnership

    The Maryland State Department of Education

    The National Institute for Literacy

    The National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Overarching Principles:

    Adult Education Program Considerations

    (continued)

    • Disability Sensitive

    • Supports self advocacy

    • Supports reasonable accommodations

    • Well Funded

    • Adequately staffed

    • Provides support services

    • Transportation, child care, educational

    • supplies, and diagnostic testing


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Overarching Principles:

    Adult Education Program Considerations

    • In all cases, adult education should be:

    • Consumer - Friendly

    • Culturally appropriate

    • Adult Centered

    • Adult driven

    • Sensitive to the complexity of adult lives

    • Accountable

    • Outcome based


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Areas of Discussion

    MAJOR FINDING OF THE NATIONAL EXPERT PANEL

    - INTAKE IS THE KEY


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Ideal for Intake Process

    1.Intake should be the cornerstone for the

    intervention process.

    2. Intake process should be comprehensive, including a screening process , and if indicated, formal diagnostic procedures… intake process should be coordinated with all involved sharing findings.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Ideal for Intake Process

    • 3. Intake personnel needs to be trained professionals

    • 4. The tools used for diagnosing learning disabilities need to be appropriate for adults.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Ideal for Intake Process

    (continued)

    5. Intake needs to be highly positive for the adult with

    learning disabilities.

    6. Programs must be honest with the adult and talk

    about the impact the disability, the intensive nature

    of instructional intervention and the need for

    commitment of all in order to achieve progress.

    7. Intake personnel needs to be highly trained with an

    understanding of issues relevant to adults with

    learning disability.


    Identifying ld in minority languages

    Identifying LD in Minority Languages

    • Allyn, and Bacon in Selective Cross-battery Assessments: Guideline for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations (Intelligence Test Desk Reference (McGraw & Flanagan, ed.), state that

    • “Assessment of the cognitive capabilities of individuals from culturally and linguistically diverse populations” is “one of the most difficult tasks facing psychologist today.”


    What are the conflicts

    What are the Conflicts

    • There is almost no agreement on what is required to determine LD in Spanish populations

    • There has been a long term argument that the issue is not LD but language and education issues.

    • There is limited understanding between the difference in LD in K-12 setting (IDEA) and in the adult setting.


    The driving concern of the about adults with learning disabilities who are spanish speaking

    THE DRIVING CONCERN OF THE ABOUT ADULTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES WHO ARE SPANISH SPEAKING.

    • The adult must have diagnostic testing that meets the guidelines and criteria of “adult programs” (such as the GED testing, college requirements, Vocational Rehabilitation services) not special education requirements as stipulated in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

    • Persons with disabilities, once they have a high school degree or reach the age of 22, are not covered under the special education law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, IDEA).


    Why spanish first

    WHY SPANISH FIRST

    • While the issue of identification of LD is not limited to Spanish-speaking populations, OVAE/DAEL determined to begin the process of development of protocols for LD issues for Spanish-speaking populations first. Spanish was chosen because:

      • Spanish-speakers are the largest group of non-English speaking populations in the US, (approx. 75% of the ESOL population) and

      • A basic foundation of work in Spanish and LD (from US special education programs, as well as efforts in other countries) exists on which to build upon.


    Who is covered by civil rights laws

    Who is covered by Civil Rights Laws

    Only persons with disabilities are covered by civil rights laws.

    • There is no civil rights protection for having a learning difference.

    • There is no civil rights protection for have learning difficulties

    • There is civil rights protection for having a disability - including learning disabilities.


    Disability not teaching failure1

    Disability, not Teaching Failure

    • The definitions show learning disabilities to have a foundation of impairment in the central nervous system.

    • The academic (and social) failings are based on the impairment, not lack of access or opportunity


    What is needed to diagnose ld5

    What is needed to Diagnose LD

    Different “settings’ require different types of evaluations

    If a new diagnostic is needed, the type should be based on consumer need.

    Educational Psychological (ED-PSYC)

    K-12, Adult Education programs, Community Colleges, most Four-Year Colleges.

    Neurological Psychological (NEURO-PSYC)

    Vocational Rehabilitation, most job training programs, most employment settings.

    GED requires its own testing requirements (Form L-15) that has elements of both Ed-Psycs and Neuro-Psycs)


    Sponsors of the meeting

    Sponsors of the Meeting

    • San Antonio Meeting April 2000

      • 35 National and International Experts on LD and Spanish

    • Sponsored by

      • OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION (OVAE)

      • CITY OF SAN ANTONIO – Office of Community Initiatives

      • NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR LITERACY (NIFL) (phases 1-2)

      • USDHHS Office of Family Assistance (ACF) - (phases 3-6)


    Purpose of the san antonio meeting

    Purpose of the San Antonio Meeting

    • To field test existing screens for LD in Spanish to see if any are valid tools

    • If none of the screens proved valid, could a new screen be developed by the finds of the research

    • To gain, if possible, a snap shot of the rates of LD in the immigrant populations


    Conference findings

    CONFERENCE FINDINGS

    • The key diagnostic testing tool available for Spanish speaking adults is

    • The Woodcock-Muñoz Psycho-educational Battery or in Spanish, “Bateria Woodcock-Muñoz Revisada.”

      • The Cognitive Battery is named Pruebas de habilidad congitiva (tests of cognitive ability)

      • The achievement battery is the “Pruebas de aprovechamiento” (tests of achievement).

    • Administering all the sub-tests of the Pruebas de Habilidad Cognitiva would involve up to 4 hours of testing.


    Conference findings two views of diagnostics

    Total time up to 18 hours

    Pre-diagnostic testing process – 2 hours

    Diagnostic Testing - 9-10 hours.

    Report writing - 3 hours

    Meeting with consumer/program 2-3 hours.

    Total time up to 11 hours

    Pre-diagnostic testing process – 2 hours

    Diagnostic Testing 5-6 hours,

    Report writing 2 hour

    Meeting with the consumer/program 2 hours.

    CONFERENCE FINDINGS Two views of diagnostics


    Support for next steps

    Support for Next Steps -

    • States Supporting the Field Testing

      • Arizona (Adult Ed. Funded)

      • California (12 counties)(TANF Funded)

      • Massachusetts (Adult Ed. Funded)

      • New York (TANF Funded)

      • Texas (WtW grant funded)

      • Virginia (TANF/VR Funded)

    • Funding ended in 2002, But NY Department of Labor took over the funding of the project.


    Ovae new york study of ld in spanish speaking populations

    OVAE/New York Study of LD in Spanish Speaking Populations

    • The project conducted 850 diagnoses of

      • Spanish speaking adults

      • Seeking services from workforce boards or from TANF (welfare), and

      • Were randomly selected (with no preconceived notion of disability)

        Data was collected from Washington DC, California and New York State.


    Ovae new york study of ld in spanish speaking populations1

    OVAE/New York Study of LD in Spanish Speaking Populations

    The OVAE/NY study found 45% had a diagnosable cognitive disability

    • 15-20% learning disabilities

    • 25% low-IQ with standard range to be considered developmentally delayed or mental retardation.

      Almost none were previously identified.

      (These findings took into account cultural and education issues.)


    Need for recognition

    Need for Recognition

    • Unless the understanding exists that LD is highly representative in Spanish (and other immigrant populations)

      • Proper intervention models will not be brought to bear for literacy and job training efforts

      • Citizenship may be jeopardized (no accommodations on test)

      • Many others


    Where to find research and screen

    Where to find Research and Screen

    • The Screen and New York reports on the development of the screen can be found at:

      • Learning Disabilities Association of Western New York

        • http://members.aol.com/ldaofwny/home.html

      • National Association of Workforce Boards (NAWB)

        • http://www.nawb.org/ (in the Disability Initiative section)


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Use of Broadband Technology in Addressing the Needs of Job Training and Welfare to Work Agencies in Assessment of Immigrant Populations for Learning Disabilities and other Cognitive Disorders


    The issue increased immigration

    The issue: Increased Immigration

    • People are coming to the United States from all over the world


    The issues increase immigration

    The issues: Increase Immigration

    Due to the increase exposure to the risk factors

    that are know causal agents of Learning Disabilities,

    and other cognitive disorders, there is an expected

    high rate of LD in these immigrants.

    Yet today we have almost no way in the United States to

    assess these populations for these disorders.


    How can we address the ld lep issue with immigrant groups

    How Can We Address the LD/LEP issue with Immigrant Groups?

    • We can ignore it

    • We can leave it to local resources

    • We can let it remain in the isolated “smoke stacks” of two different issues

    • OR --- we can try to use new and different resources to identify and address the issue


    How can we address the ld lep issue with immigrant groups1

    How Can We Address the LD/LEP issue with Immigrant Groups?

    • The new resource is the internet, and the new partners are the professionals in the nations of origins of the immigrants.

    • The proposed project outlined within is the calling upon the use of these resources to:

      • Increase the skill development of immigrants

      • Allow immigrants to access accommodations for disabilities when appropriate

      • Allow States and local programs to better utilize the resources available to better enable consumer success.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Use of Broadband Technology in Addressing the Needs of Job Training and Welfare to Work Agencies in Assessment of Immigrant Populations

    • Overview: This project would bring into collaboration

      • the assessment abilities of psychological and educational professionals from around the world, and

      • local State governmental and non-governmental agencies

    • To assist a wide range of agencies in the United States that are serving the needs of immigrant populations in the area of job training and literacy.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Use of Broadband Technology in Addressing the Needs of Job Training and Welfare to Work Agencies in Assessment of Immigrant Populations

    • Currently, there is virtually no means for State governments to obtain appropriate cognitive assessments of immigrant populations seeking services from State agencies in a means that is both linguistically and culturally appropriate.

      • The 2000-05 effort to validate a Spanish screening tool for LD point out the extensive lack of bi-lingual, bi-cultural diagnosticians in the US, especially for languages spoken mainly in Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia

    • The limited studies available indicate that about 45% of immigrants seeking state support may need full-scale cognitive evaluations.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Use of Broadband Technology in Addressing the Needs of Job Training and Welfare to Work Agencies in Assessment of Immigrant Populations

    • This lack infrastructure is putting major burdens on programs such as:

      • Adult Literacy, Job Training and other WIA partners

      • TANF, TICKET TO WORK and other welfare programs

      • Post secondary education settings

    • which are being required to provide disability services to “all’ populations, not just populations who are disabled and who speak English.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Use of Broadband Technology in Addressing the Needs of Job Training and Welfare to Work Agencies in Assessment of Immigrant Populations

    • There is a major “market” problem for these programs and agencies as they search for solutions to identify learning disabilities in “minority language populations” and to provide successful interventions.

      • Without appropriate diagnosticians, there can be no appropriate evaluations, even if resources are available for payment.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Use of Broadband Technology in Addressing the Needs of Job Training and Welfare to Work Agencies in Assessment of Immigrant Populations

    • This project proposes a means to address this “market problem.”

      • We see that the problem is not really a lack of resources, but an inability to link the resources with the demand.

        • There are professionals in the “nations of origins” that can conduct the assessments needed.

      • We see that the Internet can provide this link between resources and demand.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Use of Broadband Technology in Addressing the Needs of Job Training and Welfare to Work Agencies in Assessment of Immigrant Populations

    For example,

    • A Russian immigrant in Buffalo, New York is assessed by a educational psychologist at Moscow State University, in “real time” using standard assessments tools from Russia.)

    • A Mexican immigrant in Arkansas can be evaluated by professionals from the University of Guadalajara


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Use of Broadband Technology in Addressing the Needs of Job Training and Welfare to Work Agencies in Assessment of Immigrant Populations

    • Through the international network of researchers in dyslexia and learning disabilities, (coordinated through the International Dyslexia Network Fund and presented in the “International Book of Dyslexia (2004))

      • the professional assessors needed by the State governments are available in other countries.

      • The technology required for such a project was field-tested in Wales and found to be both doable and practicable, and cost efficient.

        In addition some “off the shelf” software (Microsoft Meeting, for example) may also serve the purpose for this project.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Use of Broadband Technology in Addressing the Needs of Job Training and Welfare to Work Agencies in Assessment of Immigrant Populations

    At this stage, what is required is to develop a partnership between these international resources, selected states and interested corporate support, to develop a working model for the United States.

    • This proposal is suggesting that pilots using six counties in the United States (in perhaps, three states) be developed, focusing on no more than four languages.

    • Based on the current data available concerning immigration, and the international expertise available, this project recommends that the initial languages be Spanish, (Mexican, Central American dialects) Russian, Arabic, and Tagalog (the language of the Philippines).


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Use of Broadband Technology in Addressing the Needs of Job Training and Welfare to Work Agencies in Assessment of Immigrant Populations

    Needed Steps to bring about project:

    Identify partners in the US and “countries of origins” of immigrants, as well as “oversight agency.”

    Resolve the technological and policy potential conflicts

    • Assure that all involved have both the internet capacity and the software required.

    • Assure that all involved are in agreement on the type of evaluation that is required (Evaluation must meet US standards) and that appropriate tools are being used in nation of origin to meet that standard.

    • Assure that translation issues are resolved between professionals in countries involved in each evaluation

    • Assure that cost of evaluation are appropriate for nation of origin.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Use of Broadband Technology in Addressing the Needs of Job Training and Welfare to Work Agencies in Assessment of Immigrant Populations

    • The initial investments in this project would cover:

      • Identification of partners and potential corporate sponsors.

      • expansion of the technological equipment for all partners involved;

      • costs of the professional services in the international sites (including when needed translations services for the professional to work with the case management);

      • material costs associated with test administration, training for case managers,

      • Some initial meeting costs, and

      • project administration and project evaluation.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    It is a Small World After All(as they say at Disneyland)We just need to understand how to better connect it all together for our populations …. This project is one step along the way.


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Bridges to Practice in Adult Literacy

    Bridges to Practice: A Research-based Guide for Literacy Practitioners Serving Adults with Learning Disabilities is the latest publication of AED’s National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center. The guide is designed to increase awareness among practitioners in adult literacy programs about learning disabilities, and to help program leaders make programs more responsive to the needs of adults with learning disabilities. Such adults frequently experience difficulties in reading, getting off welfare, and finding and keeping jobs.

    The product of a five-year collaboration between the Center and the University of Kansas Institute for Research on Learning Disabilities, Bridges to Practice is a research-based, five-book series that documents "best practices." Tools include four guidebooks, a professional development manual with training agendas and scripts, transparency and handout masters, and an 11-1/2 minute motivational video, Bridges to Systemic Reform.


    Some contacts

    Some Contacts

    • Office Of Disability and Employment Policy (ODEP) http://www.dol.gov/odep/

    • Section 188 Check list

      • http://www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/crc/WIASection188DisabilityChecklist.htm


    Some contacts1

    Some Contacts

    • National Center on Workforce and Disability for Adults (www.onestops.info)

    • Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth (www.ncwd-youth.info)

    • Job Accommodation Network (www.jan.wvu.edu/)

    • National Institute for Literacy (www.nifl.gov)

    • NIFL Adult LD site http://ldlink.coe.utk.edu/


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Job Accommodation Network

    Helping employees with disabilitiesand managers achievean adaptive and welcomingPublic Service work environment

    The Job Accommodation Network (JAN) is not a job placement service, but an international toll-free consulting service that provides information about job accommodations and the employability of people with disabilities. JAN also provides information regarding the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Please take a few moments to surf around and find out about our free services. Click on "Points of Interest" for our table of contents.

    West Virginia University

    PO Box 6080

    Morgantown, WV 26506-6080

    1-800-526-7234


    Us dol office of disability and employment policy odep grants

    US DOL/Office of Disability And Employment Policy (ODEP) Grants

    • http://www.dol.gov/dol/odep/public/media/press/tech.htm

      Technical Assistance Grant Awardees

    • To provide technical assistance support to Workforce Investment Act (WIA) One-Stop Career Centers, state and local Workforce Investment Boards and other key leaders that oversee and operate adult oriented programs in order to enable them to increase employment outcomes for people with disabilities, National Disability Technical Assistance Consortium on Employment of Adults with Disabilities The Institute for Community Inclusion University of Massachusetts at Boston 100 Morrissey Boulevard Boston, MA 02125


    Learning disabilities in adulthood selected bibliography

    Learning Disabilities in Adulthood: Selected Bibliography

    • Books and Reports:

      Government:

    • Interagency Committee On Learning Disabilities, Learning Disabilities - A Report to the U.S Congress (Washington DC: 1987)

    • National Institute for Literacy Bridges to Practice – A Research- Based Guide for Literacy Practitioners Serving Adults with Learning Disabilities (Washington, DC 1999)

    • National Institute for Literacy Learning Disabilities Training and Dissemination (Washington, DC: 1999)

    • National Institute for Literacy, National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center, and Maryland State Department of Education Vision for an Ideal System - Improving Services to Adults with Learning Disabilities (Baltimore: 1997)


    Learning disabilities in adulthood selected bibliography1

    Learning Disabilities in Adulthood: Selected Bibliography

    • Office of Family Assistance, Department of Health and Human Services, and Administration for Children and Families Helping Families Achieve Self-Sufficiency: A Guide on Funding Services for Children and Families Through the TANF Program (Washington, DC 2000)

    • Presidential Task Force on Employment of Adults with Disabilities Re-charting the Course: First Report of the Presidential Task Force on Employment of Adults with Disabilities (Washington, DC: 1998)

    • Presidential Task Force on Employment of Adults with Disabilities Recharting the Course: If Not Now, When? (Washington, DC 1999)

    • United States Department of Education Twenty-first Annual Report toCongress on the Implementation of the Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Act (Washington, DC: 1999)

    • United States Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General. Functional Impairments of AFDC Clients. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (Washington DC: 1992)


    Learning disabilities in adulthood selected bibliography2

    Learning Disabilities in Adulthood: Selected Bibliography

    • United States Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, The Learning Disabled in Employment and TrainingPrograms. Research and Evaluation Report Series 91-E. U.S. Department of Labor (Washington DC: 1991).

      Private Sector:

    • American Educational Research Association Standards for Educational And Psychological Testing (Washington Dc: 1999)

      Bowler, Rosemary F. Learning To Learn (New York: 1996)

    • Brown, Dale S. Learning a Living – A Guide to Planning Your Career and Finding a Job for People with Learning Disabilities, Attention Deficit Disorder and Dyslexia (Bethesda, MD: 2000)

    • Brown, Dale, Steps to Independence for People with Learning

      Disabilities. (Washington DC: 1980)


    Learning disabilities in adulthood selected bibliography3

    Learning Disabilities in Adulthood: Selected Bibliography

    • Prohibition Against Discrimination on the Basis of Disability in the Administration of TANF, Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January 2001, available at http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/prohibition.html

    • Terri S. Thompson, Kelly Mikelson, Screening and Assessment in TANF/Welfare-to-Work: Ten Important Questions TANF Agencies and Their Partners Should Consider, Urban Institute, March 2001, available at http://www.urban.org/pdfs/screening_and_assessment_TANF-WtW.pdf

    • Amy Brown, Beyond Work First: How to Help Hard-to-Employ Individuals Get Jobs and Succeed in the Workforce: A How-To Guide, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, April 2001, available at http://www.mdrc.org

    • Michelle K. Derr, Heather Hill, LaDonna Pavetti, Addressing Mental Health Problems Among TANF Recipients: A Guide for Program Administrators, Mathematica Policy Research, July 2000, available at http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/PDFs/address_mental.pdf

    • Cary LaCheen, Using Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act on Behalf of Clients in TANF Programs, Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law and Policy, Volume VII, Winter 2001; also available on the Welfare Law Center's website, http://www.welfarelaw.org

    • Eileen P. Sweeney, HHS Guidance Explains How Federal Laws Barring Discrimination Against People with Disabilities Apply in State and County TANF Programs, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, February 2001, available at http://www.cbpp.org/2-26-01wel.htm


    Learning disabilities in adulthood selected bibliography4

    Learning Disabilities in Adulthood: Selected Bibliography

    • Fletcher, Todd and Bos, Candace –Helping Individuals With Disabilities and Their Families Mexican and U.S. Perspectives (Tempe, AZ: 1999)

    • GED Testing Service - Form L-15 Accommodation Request for Learning Disabilities ND/OR Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    • Gerber, Paul J. and Brown, Dale S. Learning Disabilities and Employment (Austin: 1997)

    • Gerber, Paul J. and Henry B. Reiff, Learning Disabilities in Adulthood, Persisting Problems and Evolving Issues. (Boston: 1994)

    • Giler, Janet Z. Socially ADDept, A Manual For Parents and Children with ADHD and/or Learning Disabilities (Santa Barbara, CA 2000)

    • Gregg, Noel, et al, Adults with Learning Disabilities – Theoretical and Practical Perspectives. (New York: 1996)

    • Health Resource Center, and The National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center, National Resources for Adults with Learning Disabilities. (Washington DC: 1996)


    Learning disabilities in adulthood selected bibliography5

    Learning Disabilities in Adulthood: Selected Bibliography

    • Henderson, Cathy College Freshmen With Disabilities Statistical Year (Washington, DC1999)

    • Johnson, Doris J., and Jane W. Blalock, Adults With Learning Disabilities. (Orlando: 1987).

    • Krasnegor, Norman A., Kavanaugh, James F., Gray, David B., and Lyon, G. Reid Better Understanding Learning Disabilities (Baltimore, MD: 1993)

    • Krupska, Marysia and Klein, Cynthia Demystifying Dyslexia - Raising Awareness and Developing Support for Dyslexic People and Adults (London: 1995)

    • Latham, Peter, and Patricia, H. Latham, Learning Disabilities and theLaw. (Washington DC: 1993)

    • Learning Disabilities Association of America, Secondary Education and Beyond - Providing Opportunities for Students with Learning Disabilities. (Pittsburgh: 1995)

    • Lyon, Reid G., Frames of Reference for the Assessment of Learning Disabilities - New Views on Measurement Issues. (Baltimore:1994)


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    www.ldonline.org

    Here’s a sampling of assistive technology

    resources useful to students and adults

    with learning disabilities:

    • Keyboard Alternatives

    • Keyboard/Mouse Interface Software

    • Portable Word Processing Alternatives

    • Word Prediction Software


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    • Text-To_Speech

    • Screen Reading Software

    • Optical Character Recognition Software

    • Writing/Composing Software

    • Spelling Checkers, Dictionaries,

    • & Thesauruses

    • Assistive Technology Information Sites

    • Speech Recognition

    • Books on Disc/Tape

    • Variable Speech Control

    • Listening Aides

    • Talking Calculators


    Why so many are not succeeding are we missing the learning disability

    Accommodating Adults

    with Disabilities in Adult

    Education Programs

    ACCOMMODATIONS

    University of Kansas

    Institute for Adult Services


  • Login