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Inland Water Systems. Outline: introduction area and distribution  excursion: peatlands Services Condition Drivers of change conclusions. Inland Water Systems. IWS are: All inland aquatic habitats, whether fresh, brackish or saline, as well as inland seas Lakes Rivers marshes

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inland water systems
Inland Water Systems

Outline:

  • introduction
  • area and distribution

 excursion: peatlands

  • Services
  • Condition
  • Drivers of change
  • conclusions
inland water systems1
Inland Water Systems

IWS are:

All inland aquatic habitats, whether fresh, brackish or saline, as well as inland seas

  • Lakes
  • Rivers
  • marshes
  • Swamps
  • Floodplains
  • Small streams
  • Ponds
  • Cave waters

also rice-fields, aquaculture ponds, reservoirs

special attributes of iws
Special attributes of IWS
  • Variety in time and extent difficult to assess
  • Biggest species-richness compared to Marine and terrestrial ecosystems
  • Maybe worst threatened of all systems in MA
  • IWS are affected by- but also influence climate change feedback
  • Multiple services from healthy IWS intensive use
source http ga water usgs gov edu watercyclesummarytext html
Source: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html
slide5
Area

530 million to 1280 million hectares

  • 2.6% of earth´s surface ; 8.5% of landsurface covered by IWS
peatlands
peatlands
  • Peat: organic material which is acumulated but not decomposed due to anoxic conditions in swamps/ marshes
  • Peatlands cover 400 million hectares
source http earthobservatory nasa gov newsroom newimages images php3 img id 17423
Source:http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=17423Source:http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=17423
peatlands1
peatlands
  • Carbon-accumulation of intact peatlands

Feedback with climate

services
Services
  • Hydrologic regulation
services1
Services
  • Hydrologic regulation
  • Sediment retention and water purification
services2
Services
  • Hydrologic regulation
  • Sediment retention and water purification
  • Recharge/ discharge of groundwater
services3
Services
  • Hydrologic regulation
  • Sediment retention and water purification
  • Recharge/ discharge of groundwater
  • Climate-change mitigation
services4
Services
  • Hydrologic regulation
  • Sediment retention and water purification
  • Recharge/ discharge of groundwater
  • Climate-change mitigation
  • Products from IWS
services5
Services
  • Hydrologic regulation
  • Sediment retention and water purification
  • Recharge/ discharge of groundwater
  • Climate-change mitigation
  • Products from IWS
  • Recreation and tourism
services6
Services
  • Hydrologic regulation
  • Sediment retention and water purification
  • Recharge/ discharge of groundwater
  • Climate-change mitigation
  • Products from IWS
  • Recreation and tourism
  • Cultural value
condition of iws
Condition of IWS
  • Agricultural drainage: 56-65% of IWS suitable for agriculture
  • Wetland-loss: 50% during 20eth century (speculation)
  • Status of IWS species: dramatic
slide21
Table 20.5. Relative Species Richness of Different Ecosystems

(McAllister et al. 1997)

Ecosystems Freshwater Marine Terrestrial

Habitat Extent 0.870.828.4

(percent of

world)

Species Diversity 2.4 14.7 77.5

(percent of

known species)

Relative Species 3.0 0.2 2.7

Richness

source: Millenium ecosystem Assessment chapter 20

drivers of change
Drivers of change

Indirect drivers:

  • Expansion of population, welfare

Direct drivers:

  • Physical change, hydrologic modification
hydrologic modification
hydrologic modification

DAMS:

  • 700% increase in water stored in river-systems
  • immense change of flowing-patterns
  • impact on sediment-transport and waste-processing capacity

(residence time doubled/ tripled)

  • impact on fish-migration
  • floodplains alterated
drivers of change1
Drivers of change

Indirect drivers:

  • Expanding of population, welfare

Direct drivers:

  • Physical change
  • hydrologic modification
  • Invasive species
drivers of change2
Drivers of change

Indirect drivers:

  • Expanding of population, welfare

Direct drivers:

  • Physical change
  • hydrologic modification
  • Invasive species
  • Fisheries/ harvesting
drivers of change3
Drivers of change

Indirect drivers:

  • Expanding of population, welfare

Direct drivers:

  • Physical change
  • hydrologic modification
  • Invasive species
  • Fisheries/ harvesting
  • Water pollution and eutrophication
drivers of change4
Drivers of change

Indirect drivers:

  • Expanding of population, welfare

Direct drivers:

  • Physical change
  • hydrologic modification
  • Invasive species
  • Fisheries/ harvesting
  • Water pollution and eutrophication
  • Climate change
conclusions
conclusions
  • Deep examination often reveals: greater economic benefits from intact IWS than of those beeing converted (holistic approach)

essential to consider information about full range of benefits

  • Special agreements needed due to connectivity of IWS (linkage between countries)
  • People who benefit most from intact IWS are local residents, especially poor people

Use of local knowledge and consideration of local people required

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