Ethnic differences in weight retention after pregnancy in hawai i
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Ethnic Differences in Weight Retention After Pregnancy in Hawai`i. G. Baruffi, C. Hardy, C. Waslien, S. Uyehara, D. Krupitsky. Introduction. Obesity in the U.S. has become an epidemic Obesity rates have increased by nearly 60% since 1991, and by 6% between 1998 and 1999 (CDC)

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Ethnic Differences in Weight Retention After Pregnancy in Hawai`i

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Ethnic differences in weight retention after pregnancy in hawai i

Ethnic Differences in Weight Retention After Pregnancy in Hawai`i

G. Baruffi, C. Hardy, C. Waslien, S. Uyehara, D. Krupitsky


Introduction

Introduction

  • Obesity in the U.S. has become an epidemic

  • Obesity rates have increased by nearly 60% since 1991, and by 6% between 1998 and 1999 (CDC)

  • 50% of women 25-55 yrs of age are either overweight or obese


Introduction cont

Introduction (cont)

  • Adequate weight gain during pregnancy is important for optimal pregnancy outcomes

  • Excessive weight gain during pregnancy and retention of weight 6 months after delivery are predictors of long-term obesity


Introduction cont1

Introduction (cont)

  • Weight gain during pregnancy and weight retention postpartum vary by:

    • Prepregnancy BMI

    • Parity, Age

    • Breastfeeding, Smoking, Exercise

    • Race/ethnicity


Purpose of the study

Purpose of the study

  • Reported racial differences are between Black and White women

  • Purpose of this study: to investigate weight gain during pregnancy and weight retention postpartum in a multiethnic population of women in Hawai`i


Methods

Methods

  • Cross sectional study of postpartum women attending the Hawai`i WIC Program in 1997-98

  • Weight gain during pregnancy self reported

  • Weight and height at postpartum visit measured by WIC staff


Methods cont

Methods (cont)

  • Ethnicity self reported

  • Seven ethnic groups:

    • Asian (Japanese, Chinese, Korean)

    • Black

    • Caucasian (White, Puerto Rican, Spanish)

    • Filipino

    • Hawaiian (Hawaiian, Part-Hawaiian)

    • Samoan

    • Other


Analysis

Analysis

  • First postpartum visit

  • 5,863 women

  • Bivariate and multivariate analysis

  • SAS


Distribution of postpartum women by ethnicity hawai i wic 1997 98

Distribution of postpartum women by ethnicity. Hawai`i WIC 1997-98


Distribution of women by post partum duration and ethnicity hawai i wic 1997 98

Distribution of women by post partum duration and ethnicity. Hawai`i WIC 1997-98


Iom recommendations for wt gain by prepregnancy bmi

IOM recommendations for WT gain by prepregnancy BMI


Distribution of women by prepregnancy bmi and wt gain hawai i wic 1997 98

Distribution of women by prepregnancy BMI and WT gain. Hawai`i WIC 1997-98


Prepregnancy bmi and pregnancy weight gain by ethnicity hawai i wic 1997 98

Prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain by ethnicity. Hawai`i WIC 1997-98


Postpartum weight loss and retention by postpartum duration hawai i wic 1997 98

Postpartum weight loss and retention by postpartum duration. Hawai`i WIC 1997-98


Postpartum weight loss and retention by ethnicity hawai i wic 1997 98

Postpartum weight loss and retention by ethnicity. Hawai`i WIC 1997-98


Multiple regression of wt retention by ethnicity hawai i wic 1997 98

Multiple regression of WT retention by ethnicity. Hawai`i WIC 1997-98


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • 30% of women were overweight or obese before pregnancy

  • Overweight and obese women had an excessive weight gain during pregnancy

  • Average weight retention at 5-6 months pp was 9.4 lbs, and 7.4 lbs after 8 months pp


Conclusions cont

Conclusions (cont)

  • Overall significant ethnic differences in prepregnancy BMI

  • Samoan had the highest mean prepregnancy BMI (29.7)

  • Filipino had the lowest mean prepregnancy BMI (22.5)


Conclusions cont1

Conclusions (cont)

  • Overall significant ethnic differences in weight gain during pregnancy

  • Samoans had the highest mean weight gain (37.3 lbs)

  • Asian had the lowest mean weight gain (29.1 lbs)


Conclusions cont2

Conclusions (cont)

  • Overall significant ethnic differences in weight retention

  • Samoan had the largest average wt retention (17.5 lbs)

  • Asian had the smallest average wt retention (9.6 lbs)


Conclusions cont3

Conclusions (cont)

  • Adjusting for weight gain during pregnancy, pp duration, and age, all ethnicities, except Black and Hawaiian, retained significantly more weight than Caucasian.

  • Samoan retained the most (3.5 lbs)

  • Asian retained the least (1.1 lbs)


Recommendations

Recommendations

  • For each lb of weight gained during pregnancy there was almost 2/3 lb adjusted weight retention

  • Importance of controlling weight gain during pregnancy

  • Importance of loosing weight after delivery


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