Chemistry, The Central Science , 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College St. Peters, MO 2006, Prentice Hall, Inc. Waves.
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Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition
Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten
John D. Bookstaver
St. Charles Community College
St. Peters, MO
2006, Prentice Hall, Inc.
c =
E = h
where h is Planck’s constant, 6.63 10−34 Js.
c =
E = h
Another mystery involved the emission spectra observed from energy emitted by atoms and molecules.
E = h
E = h
( )
1
n2
E = −RH
nf2
( )

E = −RH
1
ni2
The Nature of EnergyThe energy absorbed or emitted from the process of electron promotion or demotion can be calculated by the equation:
where RH is the Rydberg constant, 2.18 10−18 J, and ni and nf are the initial and final energy levels of the electron.
mv
=
The Wave Nature of Matter(The mass of an electron is 9.11x1031kg.)
4
(x) (mv)
The Uncertainty Principleit is inherently impossible for us to know simultaneously both the exact momentum of the electron and its exact location in space.
−l ≤ ml≤ l.
Observing a graph of probabilities of finding an electron versus distance from the nucleus, we see that s orbitals possess n−1 nodes, or regions where there is 0 probability of finding an electron.
“For degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is maximized.”
Some irregularities occur when there are enough electrons to halffill s and d orbitals on a given row.
For instance, the electron configuration for copper is
[Ar] 4s1 3d5
rather than the expected
[Ar] 4s2 3d4.