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Intelligence and Tests. Or Are you really as smart as you think you are? And how you can find out. Historical Perspective. Phrenology Craniometry The Dilemma: Mustard Seed or Ball Bearings. Historical Perspective. Alfred Binet Tried to identify mentally retarded children.

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slide1

Intelligence and Tests

Or

Are you really as smart as you think you are? And how you can find out

slide2

Historical Perspective

Phrenology

Craniometry

The Dilemma:Mustard Seed or Ball Bearings

slide3

Historical Perspective

Alfred Binet

Tried to identify mentally retarded children.

Came up with the first IQ test

slide4

Historical Perspective

Mental Age Chronological Age

IQ =

A 4 year old who can answer questions that a typical 6 year old could answer would have an IQ of 150

Distinguishing Ignorance from Stupidity?

slide5

Historical Perspective

Mean = 100 Standard Deviation = 15

130+ = Gifted

145+ = Genius

70- = Moron

55- = Imbecile

25- = Idiot

slide6

Triarchic Model

Componential Intelligence – skills involving metacognition, knowledge acquisition

Experiential Intelligence – Being able to apply knowledge to novel situations

Contextual Intelligence – Common sense

slide7

Multiple Intelligences

The Savant Problem

Brain Damaged Cases

Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences

slide8

Multiple Intelligences

1) Linguistic

2) Mathematical

3) Spatial

4) Kinesthetic

5) Musical

6) Interpersonal

7) Intrapersonal

8) Naturalist/Spiritual

slide9

Artificial Intelligences

Alan Turing and his famous test

Don’t forget Demo

slide10

Animal Intelligence

What evidence would be necessary to persuade you that an animal was intelligent?

Continuum vs. Discrete Measures of Intelligence

slide11

Testing

Face Validity – The extent to which a test appears to test-takers to be valid

Content Validity – How well a test provides a representation of the content domain

Criterion Validity – How well the test predicts

Construct Validity – Does the content domain measure what its supposed to

slide12

Item Types

Multiple Choice – Easy to administer, hard to find good distracter items.

Likert Scale – Item in which you rate on a scale your level of agreement: even vs. odd

Q-sorts – checklist of adjectives: susceptible to context effects

Free response – Need a coding Scheme

slide13

Test Items

Double Barreled Questions:

“I didn’t vote for Gore because I didn’t like his stance on affirmative action”

slide14

Test Items

Redundant Items Lower Content Validity by Over-sampling parts of the content domain.

Mix positive and negative questions to overcome positive response bias.

slide15

Test Items

Ambiguous Items lower validity:

To what extent to you agree with the following:

“An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth”

Turn the other cheek vs. I’ll hurt them twice as much as they hurt me…

slide16

Test Items

Ambiguous Items lower validity:

“I’m constantly searching my room for bugs”

slide17

Test Items

Demand Characteristics:

Thank you for your participation in this study. You have submitted photographs of yourself, and these have been reviewed by 100 raters, at least 98 of whom have classified you as "extremely unattractive." We believe that especially unattractive people such as yourself generally have low self-esteem and feel nervous about interactions with other people. Please keep this in mind as you fill out the following survey.

slide18

Administration Issues

Standardization

Expectation effects

Reinforcing Responses

slide19

Interpretation Issues

Restricted Range Problems

slide20

Interpretation Issues

Simpson’s Paradox Revisited

slide21

Interpretation Issues

Feedback and the Barnum Effect

Do Demo Now

slide22

Conclusion

  • Intelligence is a tricky concept and is not as easily defined as one might think.
  • Testing is difficult, and many tests have problems that you need to be aware of.
slide23

Assignment #2

Take and evaluate online tests

2-3 pages, doubles spaced, normal font and margins

You can discuss this with your classmates, but the final analysis must be your own

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