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ICl 4 – PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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. [ ]. –. Cl–. –Cl. I. Cl. H. O. H. H–C–C–O–H. Cl. –. C=O. –. –OH. ICl 4 –. EDG: octahedral. MG: sq. planar. 36 e –. For molecules with more than one central atom, simply apply the VSEPR model to each part. Predict the EDG and MG around the three interior

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Icl 4

..

[ ]

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Cl–

..

–Cl

..

I

..

..

..

..

Cl

H

..

..

O

H

..

H–C–C–O–H

..

Cl

..

..

C=O

..

–OH

..

ICl4–

EDG: octahedral

MG: sq. planar

36 e–

For molecules with more than one central atom,

simply apply the VSEPR model to each part.

Predict the EDG and MG around the three interior

atoms of ethanoic (acetic) acid.

CH3COOH

PORTION

EDG

MG

–CH3

tetra.

tetra.

trig. plan.

trig. plan.

tetra.

bent


Icl 4

..

..

O

H

H

H

..

C

..

..

Cl

..

H

H

..

N

104.5o

..

..

O=C

H

107.0o

H

H

..

Cl

..

109.5o

H

Nonbonding domains are attracted to only one nucleus;

therefore, they are more spread out than are bonding

domains. The effect is that nonbonding domains

(i.e., “lone pairs”) compress bond angles. Domains for

multiple bonds have a similar effect.

e.g.,

CH4 NH3 H2O

the ideal bond angle for the tetrahedral

EDG is 109.5o

COCl2

124.3o

111.4o

124.3o

EDG = trig. plan.

ideal = 120o


Icl 4

..

..

S

H

H

..

..

..

..

O=C=O

Polarity of Molecules

A molecule’s polarity is determined by its overall

dipole, which is the vector sum of the dipoles of

each of the molecule’s bonds.

Consider CO2 v. H2S...

bond dipoles

bond dipoles

overall dipole =

zero

overall dipole =

(NONPOLAR)

(POLAR)


Icl 4

Cl

..

..

..

..

..

Cl–

–Cl

..

..

P

..

..

..

Cl

..

..

..

..

B

..

–Cl

Cl–

..

..

..

..

Classify as polar or nonpolar:

PCl3

BCl3

polar

26 e–

nonpolar

24 e–

Boron can be extracted by

the electrolysis of molten

boron trichloride. Boron is

an essential nutrient for

plants, and is also a primary

component of control rods

in nuclear reactors.


Icl 4

covalent bonding occurs when

atoms share electrons

Lewis theory says…

Valence-Bond Theory: merges Lewis structures

w/the idea of atomic orbitals

(2s, 3p, etc.)

V-B theory says…

covalent bonding occurs when

valence orbitals of adjacent

atoms overlap; then, two e–s

of opposite spin (one from

each atom) combine to form

a bond

V-B theory is like Velcro: “No overlap, no bond.”


Icl 4

= orbital overlap region

(responsible for bond)

Consider H2, Cl2, and HCl...

H

(unpaired e– is in 1s orb.)

(unpaired e– is in 3p orb.)

Cl

[Ne]

H2

Cl2

HCl


Icl 4

H2 molecule

Energy

optimum dist.

(min. PE)

0

H–H distance

There is always an optimum distance between two

bonded nuclei. At this optimum distance,

attractive (+/–) and repulsive (+/+ and –/–) forces

balance.


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