Language in text reading comprehension
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Language in Text & Reading Comprehension. Synonymy. Synonymy is identity of meaning. But, these are not synonyms. happily. glad. cheerfulness. sadness. unhappily. sorrowful. These, however, are synonyms:. happy : glad : cheerful. happiness : gladness : cheerfulness.

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Language in Text & Reading Comprehension

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Language in text reading comprehension

Language in Text &Reading Comprehension

Synonymy


Language in text reading comprehension

Synonymy isidentity of meaning


Language in text reading comprehension

But, these are not synonyms.

happily

glad

cheerfulness

sadness

unhappily

sorrowful


These however are synonyms

These, however, are synonyms:

happy : glad : cheerful

happiness : gladness : cheerfulness

happily: gladly: cherfully

unhappy : sad: sorrowful

unhappiness : sadness : sorrowfulness

unhappily : sadly : sorrowfully


Types

Types


1 absolute synonymy

1. Absolute Synonymy

  • The lexemes should have “the same distribution” and should be “completely synonymous in all their meanings and contexts of occurrence.”(Lyons 148)

  • Absolutely synonymous lexemes are nearly non-existant.

  • This type is “restricted to highly specialized vocabulary” such as medicine or biology. (ibid.)(example 1)


Example 1

Example 1

caecitis = typhlitis

inflammation of the blind gut


What about the following pairs

What about the following pairs?

1. radio / wireless

2. aerodrome / airfield

Are they absolutely synonymous?


2 complete synonymy

2. Complete Synonymy

  • The synonyms should have “the same descriptive, expressive and social meaning.”(ibid.)

  • Completely synonymous lexemes are rare.

    Example 2:

    nearly : almost


What about the following

What about the following?

1. broad / wide

2. lavatory / toilet / loo / WC

Are they completely synonymous?


3 descriptive synonymy

3. Descriptive Synonymy

  • It is referred to as cognitive synonymy or referential synonymy.

  • It stands for lexemes that have approximately the same meaning.

    Example 3:

    father / dad / daddy / pop


Conclusion

Conclusion

1. Synonymy = descriptive synonymy

= referential synonymy

= cognitive synonymy

2. Complete synonymy: rare

3. Absolute synonymy: almost non-existant


Works consulted

Works Consulted

  • Leech, Geoffrey. Semantics: The Study of Meaning. London: Penguin Books, 1981.

  • Lyons, John. Language and Linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 1992.


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