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Vietnam War and Southeast Asia. Objectives. Describe events in Indochina after World War II. Learn how America entered the Vietnam War. Understand how the Vietnam War ended. Analyze Southeast Asia after the war. Terms and People.

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Objectives

  • Describe events in Indochina after World War II.

  • Learn how America entered the Vietnam War.

  • Understand how the Vietnam War ended.

  • Analyze Southeast Asia after the war.


Terms and People

  • guerrillas – small groups of loosely organized soldiers making surprise raids

  • Ho Chi Minh – a communist leader in Vietnam who fought the Japanese, fought the French, and battled U.S.-supported South Vietnam for control of the country

  • Dienbienphu – a bloody battle between the French and the Vietnamese in 1954 that resulted in the French leaving Vietnam


Terms and People (continued)

  • domino theory – the view that a communist victory in South Vietnam would cause noncommunist governments across Southeast Asia to fall to communism like a row of dominoes

  • Viet Cong – the communist rebels trying to overthrow South Vietnam’s government

  • Tet Offensive – an unexpected 1968 guerrilla attack on American and South Vietnamese forces in cities all across South Vietnam on the Vietnamese New Year


Terms and People (continued)

  • Khmer Rouge– a force of Cambodian communist guerrillas who overthrew the Cambodian government in 1975

  • Pol Pot – a brutal dictator who led the Khmer Rouge and killed a third of the population in an effort to destroy all Western influences


What were the causes and effects of war in Southeast Asia, and what was the American role in this region?

Wars in Southeast Asia began as nationalist struggles against foreign rule.

However, as the superpowers became involved, these conflicts became part of the global Cold War.


Japan overran Southeast Asia during World War II. After the war, the French returned to their colony of Indochina.

  • Nationalists in Southeast Asia were determined to be free of foreign rule once and for all.

  • Vietnamese guerrillas led by communist Ho Chi Minh fought the French.

  • France withdrew after losing the battle of Dienbienphu in 1954.


A noncommunist government war, the French returned to their colony of Indochina.under Ngo Dinh Diem ruled South Vietnam, supported by the United States.

Vietnam was divided into two countries at an international conference in 1954.

Ho Chi Minh and his communist regime controlled North Vietnam.


American foreign policy leaders developed war, the French returned to their colony of Indochina.the domino theory.

  • They believed that if Vietnam fell to communism, other Southeast Asian nations would follow.

  • The United States sent military advisors to aid South Vietnam.

  • Ho Chi Minh, who wanted to unite Vietnam under communist rule, supported the efforts of the Viet Cong against the South Vietnamese government.


North Vietnamese attacked a U.S. Navy ship, believing it had helped in the raids.

Johnson asked Congress to pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, authorizing the use of force in Vietnam.

American military involvement in Vietnam escalated under President Lyndon Johnson.

South Vietnamese forces raided North Vietnamese islands in 1964.


The Vietnam War became a major Cold War battleground. helped in the raids.

  • Eventually, more than 500,000 American troops served in Vietnam.

  • To support North Vietnam, the Soviet Union and China sent aid, but no troops.

American troops patrol thejungles of South Vietnam.


America faced a guerrilla war in Vietnam. helped in the raids.

  • The rebels were friendly with villagers and knew the landscape. American troops were out of their element.

  • In 1968, the North Vietnamese launched the Tet Offensive.Communist guerrillas launched surprise attacks on cities all across South Vietnam.


  • There were growing American casualties, helped in the raids.and high numbers of civilian deaths.

  • Many young people joined a growing antiwar movement and protested in the streets.

  • American troops could not destroy the communists’ will to fight.

Although the Tet Offensive failed, it marked a turning point in American public opinion against the Vietnam War.


The United States officially withdrew from Vietnam in 1973. helped in the raids.

  • North Vietnam conquered South Vietnam in 1975. Vietnam was reunited under communist rule and Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City.

  • Communists imposed harsh rule in the south. Hundreds of thousands of South Vietnamese refugees fled the country in small boats.

  • Recovery was slow due to lack of resources and an American trade embargo.


Cambodia became communist. helped in the raids.

  • The Khmer Rouge, made up of communist rebels, overthrew the Cambodian government in 1975.

  • Under Pol Pot, the Khmer Rouge tried to destroy all Western influence. Almost a third of the Cambodian population was slaughtered, starved, or worked to death.

  • Vietnam invaded and set up an authoritarian government, which put a stop to the genocide.


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