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What is the most basic and numerous form of life on our planet?

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What is the most basic and numerous form of life on our planet?. Pro - kary -otes. “ before the nut or kernal ” or nuclei”. Archaebacteria vs. Eubacteria. Bacteria or pro kary o tes Cells without nuclei. “ old ”-est. “ good ”, common. Extrem o pliles –

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slide1

What is the most basic and numerous form of life on our planet?

Pro-kary-otes

“before the nut or kernal”

or nuclei”

slide2

Archaebacteria vs. Eubacteria

Bacteria or prokaryotes

Cells without nuclei

“old”-est

“good”, common

Extremopliles –

“Friend of extreme places”

Most numerous organism on earth, more complex

slide3

Basic Prokaryote

Outside

DNA

Capsule

Inside

Cell Wall

Cytoplasm

Plasma

Membrane

Pili

Flagellum

slide5

Endospores

Highly resistant to hostile physical and chemical conditions…

slide7

Making a Living on the Edge …

Can a living system of organisms exist in the absence of light?

Where are these living systems found?

What are these kinds of living ecosystems called?

What provides the energy for the “Producers” in these living systems?

slide8

Cave & Caverns...

Reading:

Movile Cave,

Romania

slide9

Making a Living on the Edge …

Organisms that are able to make their own food in environments which exhibit extraordinary conditions such as very high temperatures, very high salt conditions or very low or very high pH values, are called…

Autotrophic

slide10

Rock surfaces…As a symbiont

Cyanobacteria

Fungus

Rock Surface

Lichen

slide11

Soil surfaces…Cryptobiotic Community

crypto ~ biotic

hidden ~ life

slide12

Salt Flats …with and in Salt Crystals

Owens Dry Lake

Halo ~ philic

Salt ~ loving

...bacteria

slide13

Hot Springs…Hot, Acidic, Sulfur, Home

Home for Thermophilic Anaerobic Sulfur Bacteria

slide14

Mudpots...

Home for Sulfur Loving or Thermophile Cyanobacteria

slide15

Wetlands … “black Mud” Communities

Methane Producing Bacteria

4H2 + CO2 --> CH4 + 2H2O + ATP

Obligate Anaerobes

“Swamp Gas”

slide16

Acidic Waters w/o O2…Home Sweet Home

Iron Bacteria

Fe+2 (ferrous) --> Fe+3 (ferric) + e-

slide18

Acidic Waters w/o O2…Home Sweet Home

Most of the worlds iron ore originated from the waste of Iron Bacteria. These bacteria used iron dissolved in sea water like we use oxygen.  These iron-reducing bacteria coated the ocean floor with an iron-rich slime that eventually hardened into iron ore.  Iron-reducing bacteria still live today in places wet places that lack oxygen, like the “black mud” below the water in our marsh.

slide19

Ammonia…to the Staff of Life…Glucose

Nitrifying Bacteria

Nitrosomonas sp.

Nitrite

6 CO2 + 6 NH3 + 6 O2 --> C6 H12 O6 + 6 HNO3

Global Nitrogen Cycle

6 CO2 + 6 HNO3 + 6 O2 --> C6 H12 O6 + 6 HNO2

Nitrate

Nitrobacter sp.

slide20

Ammonia…to the Staff of Life…Glucose

Nitrifying Bacteria

Nitrosomonas sp.

slide21

N

I

T

R

O

G

E

N

slide22

Ammonia…to the Staff of Life…Glucose

Nitrifying Bacteria

Global Nitrogen Cycle

Instead of light energy, the nitrifying bacteria use chemical ammonia (NH3) as an energy source for the synthesis of ATP. Nitrifying bacteria are abundant in soils and shallow muds.

slide23

Deep Sea Cold Water Springs & Seeps

An Underwater Cold Water Brine Pond

Brine Pool

Muscles

An organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of chemicals.

Tube Worms

Bacteria Mats

slide24

Deep Sea Cold Water Springs & Seeps

Where cold seeps have been found.

slide25

…Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents

Hydrogen Sulfide H2S

Iron monosulfide FeS

+

Iron Pyrite FeS2

Hydrogen Gas H2

3 to 380 degrees C, No light, 4000m deep

slide26

…Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents

4 um long purple bacteria on the surface of a pyrite crystal.

slide27

…Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents

  • These bacteria are found...
  • freely floating
  • growing in mats
  • growing in the guts of tube worms as symbionts
  • on the gills of filter feeders as symbionts
slide29

…Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents

12 mm long Vent Crabs

slide30

…Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents

20 cm mussel-like bivalves. Shellfish are filter feeders.

slide31

When the sun does not shine…

Chemosynthesis

Chemo ~ syn ~ thesis

Chemical ~ together ~ food

The process of using chemical energy to create food.

slide32

Organism that do Chemosynthesis are...

Chemoautotrophic

Chemo ~ auto ~ trophic

Chemical ~ self ~ to nourish

An organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of chemicals.

Oxidation ~ Loss of Electrons  Breaking of bonds  Energy release Special Enzymes do this

slide33

When the sun does not shine…

Chemosynthetic Ecosystem

An isolated system of interdependent organisms that depend upon the abilities of chemoautotrophs to produce the food and organic compounds needed by the entire living system through carbon fixation by chemosynthetic biochemical pathways

slide34

Chemoautotrophs make their food by…

Oxidation

...removing one or more electrons from an atom, ion, or molecule...

24 electrons

12H2S+ 6CO2 ->C6H12O6 + 6H20 + 12S

…creating a gradient that does work!

slide35

S

U

L

F

U

R

slide36

Chemoautotrophs…Oxidation Rnx

2H+ + S + 2 e-

Inside the

ORGA NISM

H2S

slide37

Chemoautotrophs… Making a Gradient

The e- energy and charge are used to move the H+ beyond a membrane barrier in order to create a concentration gradient.

slide41

Chemoautotrophs…ATP “Energy Currency”

Work done as the H+ move with the concentration gradient through an enzyme creates ATP from ADP + P

slide42

Chemoautotrophs…ATP “Energy Currency”

ATP created through this process are used by chemoautotrophs to make molecules used for food (glucose) and to gather and make molecules needed to support cellular process.

slide43

Where the sun does not shine...

  • Recipe for Chemosynthesis:
    • Carbon Dioxide [CO2]
        • (carbon source)
    • Oxidizable compounds
        • (electron donors)
    • +/- Molecular Oxygen [O2]
  • AEROBIC
  • ANAEROBIC
  • Appropriate Organism
  • Appropriate Environment
slide44

Where the sun does not shine...

Compounds that can be easily oxidized (lose electrons) include:

H2, hydrogen gas - CH4, methane gas

CO, carbon monoxide gas -S, sulfur

H2S, hydrogen sulfide-NH3, ammonia

NO2, nitrate - N2O, nitrous oxide

Fe+2, Iron - Mn +2, manganese

slide45

Where the sun does not shine...

  • Organisms that create their own food by oxidizing inorganic chemicals as an energy source and carbon dioxide as their carbon source are called...
  • Chemo ~ litho ~ auto ~ trophs
  • Chemical ~ stone ~ self ~ feeder
slide46

What’s the big deal ?

  • What are some reasons for why we should study Chemolithoautotrophs?
  • cycles
  • nutrients
  • food chains
  • mining
  • antibiotics
  • search for extra-terrestriallife
slide47

Where the sun does not shine...

    • Oxidizable Compound(electron donor)
  • Hydrogen - H2 Alcaligenes eutrophus Carbon - COPseudomonas
  • Monoxide carboxydovorans
  • Ammonium- NH4+ Nitrosomonas europaea
  • Nitrite - NO2-Nitrobacter winogradskyi
slide48

Making them feel at home…LAB

  • Making and Observing a Winogradsky columns
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