What is the most basic and numerous form of life on our planet?
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What is the most basic and numerous form of life on our planet?. Pro - kary -otes. “ before the nut or kernal ” or nuclei”. Archaebacteria vs. Eubacteria. Bacteria or pro kary o tes Cells without nuclei. “ old ”-est. “ good ”, common. Extrem o pliles –

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What is the most basic and numerous form of life on our planet?

Pro-kary-otes

“before the nut or kernal”

or nuclei”


Archaebacteria vs. Eubacteria planet?

Bacteria or prokaryotes

Cells without nuclei

“old”-est

“good”, common

Extremopliles –

“Friend of extreme places”

Most numerous organism on earth, more complex


Basic Prokaryote planet?

Outside

DNA

Capsule

Inside

Cell Wall

Cytoplasm

Plasma

Membrane

Pili

Flagellum


Conjugating Bacterium planet?

Pili


Endospores planet?

Highly resistant to hostile physical and chemical conditions…


Making a Living on the Edge of Life… planet?

micron or um = 1 x 10-6 m


Making a Living on the Edge … planet?

Can a living system of organisms exist in the absence of light?

Where are these living systems found?

What are these kinds of living ecosystems called?

What provides the energy for the “Producers” in these living systems?


Cave & Caverns... planet?

Reading:

Movile Cave,

Romania


Making a Living on the Edge … planet?

Organisms that are able to make their own food in environments which exhibit extraordinary conditions such as very high temperatures, very high salt conditions or very low or very high pH values, are called…

Autotrophic


Rock surfaces…As a symbiont planet?

Cyanobacteria

Fungus

Rock Surface

Lichen


Soil surfaces…Cryptobiotic Community planet?

crypto ~ biotic

hidden ~ life


Salt Flats …with and in Salt Crystals planet?

Owens Dry Lake

Halo ~ philic

Salt ~ loving

...bacteria


Hot Springs…Hot, Acidic, Sulfur, Home planet?

Home for Thermophilic Anaerobic Sulfur Bacteria


Mudpots planet?...

Home for Sulfur Loving or Thermophile Cyanobacteria


Wetlands … “black Mud” Communities planet?

Methane Producing Bacteria

4H2 + CO2 --> CH4 + 2H2O + ATP

Obligate Anaerobes

“Swamp Gas”


Acidic Waters w/o O planet?2…Home Sweet Home

Iron Bacteria

Fe+2 (ferrous) --> Fe+3 (ferric) + e-


Acidic Waters w/o O planet?2…Home Sweet Home

Iron Bacteria


Acidic Waters w/o O planet?2…Home Sweet Home

Most of the worlds iron ore originated from the waste of Iron Bacteria. These bacteria used iron dissolved in sea water like we use oxygen.  These iron-reducing bacteria coated the ocean floor with an iron-rich slime that eventually hardened into iron ore.  Iron-reducing bacteria still live today in places wet places that lack oxygen, like the “black mud” below the water in our marsh.


Ammonia planet?…to the Staff of Life…Glucose

Nitrifying Bacteria

Nitrosomonas sp.

Nitrite

6 CO2 + 6 NH3 + 6 O2 --> C6 H12 O6 + 6 HNO3

Global Nitrogen Cycle

6 CO2 + 6 HNO3 + 6 O2 --> C6 H12 O6 + 6 HNO2

Nitrate

Nitrobacter sp.


Ammonia planet?…to the Staff of Life…Glucose

Nitrifying Bacteria

Nitrosomonas sp.


N planet?

I

T

R

O

G

E

N


Ammonia planet?…to the Staff of Life…Glucose

Nitrifying Bacteria

Global Nitrogen Cycle

Instead of light energy, the nitrifying bacteria use chemical ammonia (NH3) as an energy source for the synthesis of ATP. Nitrifying bacteria are abundant in soils and shallow muds.


Deep Sea Cold Water Springs & Seeps planet?

An Underwater Cold Water Brine Pond

Brine Pool

Muscles

An organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of chemicals.

Tube Worms

Bacteria Mats


Deep Sea Cold Water Springs & Seeps planet?

Where cold seeps have been found.


…Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents planet?

Hydrogen Sulfide H2S

Iron monosulfide FeS

+

Iron Pyrite FeS2

Hydrogen Gas H2

3 to 380 degrees C, No light, 4000m deep


…Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents planet?

4 um long purple bacteria on the surface of a pyrite crystal.


…Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents planet?

  • These bacteria are found...

  • freely floating

  • growing in mats

  • growing in the guts of tube worms as symbionts

  • on the gills of filter feeders as symbionts


…Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents planet?

3m long Tube worms


…Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents planet?

12 mm long Vent Crabs


…Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents planet?

20 cm mussel-like bivalves. Shellfish are filter feeders.


When the sun does not shine… planet?

Chemosynthesis

Chemo ~ syn ~ thesis

Chemical ~ together ~ food

The process of using chemical energy to create food.


Organism that do Chemosynthesis are... planet?

Chemoautotrophic

Chemo ~ auto ~ trophic

Chemical ~ self ~ to nourish

An organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of chemicals.

Oxidation ~ Loss of Electrons  Breaking of bonds  Energy release Special Enzymes do this


When the sun does not shine… planet?

Chemosynthetic Ecosystem

An isolated system of interdependent organisms that depend upon the abilities of chemoautotrophs to produce the food and organic compounds needed by the entire living system through carbon fixation by chemosynthetic biochemical pathways


Chemoautotrophs make their food by… planet?

Oxidation

...removing one or more electrons from an atom, ion, or molecule...

24 electrons

12H2S+ 6CO2 ->C6H12O6 + 6H20 + 12S

…creating a gradient that does work!


S planet?

U

L

F

U

R


Chemoautotrophs…Oxidation Rnx planet?

2H+ + S + 2 e-

Inside the

ORGA NISM

H2S


Chemoautotrophs… Making a Gradient planet?

The e- energy and charge are used to move the H+ beyond a membrane barrier in order to create a concentration gradient.




Chemoautotrophs…ATP “Energy Currency” planet?

2H+

chemiosmotic theory


Chemoautotrophs…ATP “Energy Currency” planet?

Work done as the H+ move with the concentration gradient through an enzyme creates ATP from ADP + P


Chemoautotrophs…ATP “Energy Currency” planet?

ATP created through this process are used by chemoautotrophs to make molecules used for food (glucose) and to gather and make molecules needed to support cellular process.


Where the sun does not shine... planet?

  • Recipe for Chemosynthesis:

    • Carbon Dioxide [CO2]

      • (carbon source)

  • Oxidizable compounds

    • (electron donors)

  • +/- Molecular Oxygen [O2]

    • AEROBIC

    • ANAEROBIC

    • Appropriate Organism

    • Appropriate Environment


    Where the sun does not shine... planet?

    Compounds that can be easily oxidized (lose electrons) include:

    H2, hydrogen gas - CH4, methane gas

    CO, carbon monoxide gas -S, sulfur

    H2S, hydrogen sulfide-NH3, ammonia

    NO2, nitrate - N2O, nitrous oxide

    Fe+2, Iron - Mn +2, manganese


    Where the sun does not shine... planet?

    • Organisms that create their own food by oxidizing inorganic chemicals as an energy source and carbon dioxide as their carbon source are called...

    • Chemo ~ litho ~ auto ~ trophs

    • Chemical ~ stone ~ self ~ feeder


    What’s the big deal ? planet?

    • What are some reasons for why we should study Chemolithoautotrophs?

    • cycles

    • nutrients

    • food chains

    • mining

    • antibiotics

    • search for extra-terrestriallife


    Where the sun does not shine... planet?

    • Oxidizable Compound(electron donor)

  • Hydrogen - H2 Alcaligenes eutrophus Carbon - COPseudomonas

  • Monoxide carboxydovorans

  • Ammonium- NH4+ Nitrosomonas europaea

  • Nitrite - NO2-Nitrobacter winogradskyi


  • Making them feel at home…LAB planet?

    • Making and Observing a Winogradsky columns


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